This paper ventured to describe and critically examine the pharmacological management of congestive heart failure (CHF) using Captropril an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of anti-hypertensive drugs…
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The readings also showed that the pharmacological management of CHF may be typified into first line and second line agents. The first line agents consist mainly of ACE-I, diuretics and beta blockers, while the second line agents consists of digoxin and hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate. Captropil belongs to the second line of pharmacological agents. Use of Captropil had been found to enhance cardiac performance, among others. However, ACE inhibitors like Captropil sometimes causes in amigo-edema, painful tongue ulcers, and alveoli is to name a few. The implications of these and the rest of the findings are discussed in the conclusion. Discussion Congestive heart failure Congestive heart failure (CHF) is defined as an inability of the heart in supplying normal oxygen and nutrient demands to the body. CHF can be caused by a number of diseases which: (1) weaken the cardiac muscle; (2) harden the cardiac muscle; and (3) increase tissue oxygen demand beyond the capacity of the heart. This condition occurs primarily on elderly patients (Kaufman et al., 2008). Congestive heart failure commonly results from a dysfunctional heart muscle or myocardial dysfunction. CHF may also result from changes in the structure and function of the heart medically termed as progressive cardiac remodeling (Medifocus, 2011). The heart muscle enables it to pump blood to facilitate metabolism for the various tissues of the body. When the heart muscles do not function normally, blood flow through the heart and the entire body proceeds slower than normal. This causes increased pressure in the heart. The body responds to the decrease in the heart’s pumping capacity by the so-called compensatory mechanisms so that cardiac function can be maintained, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system (Medifocus, 2011). The compensatory mechanisms can be activated for a period of months or years. During the time that these compensatory systems are functioning, no evident symptoms of heart failure are presented and the patient is regarded as asymptomatic (Medifocus, 2011). Heart disease classified as asymptomatic is one in which the patient does not experience undue fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and chest pain during ordinary activities (Capezuti, Siegler, & Mezey, 2008). It should, however, be made very clear at this point that the functioning of the aforementioned compensatory systems will cause further damage to the heart in the long run, and consequently affect the circulation of the blood in the body. Such damage is caused by the changes brought about by process of structural remodeling where the heart may enlarge, the cardiac walls may thicken or become thinner and further decrease in the pumping capacity of the heart. One or a combination of these changes further weakens the heart and causes the pumping to be less effective until the patient eventually develops symptomatic heart failure (Medifocus, 2011). How CHF manifests itself depends on the type of stress the heart is being subjected to, in addition to which ventricle is affected. For example, disease affecting the left ventricle causes pulmonary edema. Meanwhile, disease affecting the right ventricle is more likely to cause edema to the lower limbs and other parts of the body. Moreover, CHF can affect the flow of blood to other organs. For example, inadequate blood flow to
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It offered flight services to the tourists, business persons and travelers. Oasis flights’ routes were situated in major European cities such as Milan, Brussels, Vienna and Brussels (Bloomberg L.P, 2011). Oasis’s business mission was to provide inexpensive flight experience for making flight travel accessible to the regular long distance travelers.
CHF due to diseased heart: mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis, myocardial infarction, etc. In high output failure heart is normal, but metabolic need of body is drastically increased and heart is not able to fulfill the required need, e.g. severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis, etc.
On the other hand, not all patients, especially those with more serious indications, find relief from these possible treatment practices (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, n.d.). Treatment of heart failure may include medication, such as, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors that lessen the pressure in the blood vessels; beta blockers that reduce the heart’s tendency to beat faster; and antiarrhythmia medications that keep the rhythm regular and prevent sudden cardiac death.
This is a severe case of illness since the body is dependent on the heart’s pumping capacity to replenish its cells with oxygen. In heart failure, both ventricles are damaged and their muscles weaken and, therefore, cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s requirement.
The initial treatment of the infarction was morphine (IV), aspirin, PTCA, metoprolol (IV) and integrilin (IV). The initial treatment was tolerated well by the patient even though it subsequently led to some myocardial damage. Moreover, the patient showed signs of moderate to severe pulmonary edema after the initial treatment.
03). These problems and damages usually cut across all nature and types of humanity including young and old, men and women, all racial and ethical groups, as well as rich and poor (Luepker 02). Notably, the increased cases of heart attacks and failures usually increases the dependency both family members and the nations; thus, increasing health care costs.
But in the end, everything proved to be nothing but a huge bubble, which burst and blown away many innocents with it. Who is to blame for all this?
I fully agree with Simon Jenkins, when he says “conman stuffed with
Many conditions and diseases impair the capability of the heart to act as a pump; hence body parts do not get adequate oxygen and nutrients. As a result of this, venous blood is not pumped to the lungs for oxygenation. This accumulates in many
The underlying problem is that one of the heart chambers is unable to sustain the volume of blood that goes through them (University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center, 2015). The condition is linked to various
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