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Pathophysiology exams questions - Assignment Example

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Aneurysm is a localized diffused dilation of artery with at least 50% or half more than the normal size of the artery. Occurring at the base of the arteries of the brain, aneurysm affects the main artery, which carries the blood from the left ventricle to the heart. According…
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Aneurysm is a localized diffused dilation of artery with at least 50% or half more than the normal size of the artery. Occurring at the base of the arteries of the brain, aneurysm affects the main artery, which carries the blood from the left ventricle to the heart. According to La Place’s law, the increased pressure from the pumping of the blood makes the radius of the artery to be twice its normal size. Due to this increase in diameter pressure increases while pumping the blood making the artery to rapture thereby causing severe hemorrhage. (Fadi shamsham, 2000).
2. Stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the blood vessels. Stenosis is accompanied by unusual blood sounds resulting from the narrow blood vessels. Regurgitation or incompetence is a condition where the left atrium during systole becomes incompetent in functioning. Prolapsed is a condition where the valves of the heart fall out of place. This is caused by the displacement of the left valve during the systole because of the thickening of the mitral valve prolapsed.
3. Asbestosis is a general term given to heart disease resulting from a person inhaling too much dust. It is a chronic pneumoconiosis disease, which affects the parenchymal tissues of the lungs making the lungs to undergo slow and repetitive fibrosis. Straight, thin amphiboles asbestos fibers penetrate deeply into the lungs alveoli thereby interacting with blood, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The interaction of the amphiboles leads to the provocation of body’s immune system leading to rejection of defensive cells known as macrophages, which are responsible for destroying the fibers. Amphiboles also stimulate fibroblast cells of the lungs to lay continuously on the alveoli walls leading to thickening of the walls thus preventing or reducing the process of breathing which can lead to heart failure.
4. Clubbing results from people experiencing chronic low blood oxygen levels. The fingertips enlarge and nails appear extremely curved from front to back. The bulbous swelling gives the fingers a club shape. The normal angle of the finger changes from 160º to 180º due to this disease mostly associated with people with heart disease. Adults experience this disease because of liver disorders, gastrointestinal disorders pulmonary disorders and heart diseases.
5. Sleep apnea is a condition in which one pauses in breathing while asleep. Narcolepsy is a condition, which usually attacks people of ages 15-30 years, and it encompasses excessive sleepiness and regular daytime sleep attacks. Cataplexy is a condition in which a person suddenly loses a muscle tone because of emotions.
6. Jugular venous pressure is a technique used for measuring the mean venous pressure. The jugular venous pressure is diagnosed by checking the right side of the patient’s neck. The patient should seat in a position where the doctor is able to detect the venous pulse. The source of light should be readily available and the doctor should be able to distinguish pulse from the artery and the veins.
7. Rapid eye movement is a condition in which the eyes move under the eyelids and it is usually accompanied by dreaming. REM sleeping facilitates the assimilation of new experiences and memories. Memory tend to decease in work when REM sleep which is always 2hrs of the recommended 8 hours of sleep for humans is deprived.
8. Due to combined vascular and cardiac processes, the capacitance of the venous system can lead to fluid redistribution. When this happens, the fluid might flow to the lungs instigating pulmonary congestion, which eventually leads to heart failure.
References
Fadi shamsham, et. al. (2000, March 1). American family physician. Retrieved 2012, from Diagnosis of heart failure: www.aafp.org
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