The definition of theory is; a notion or idea that explains experience, interprets observation, describes relationships, and projects outcomes (Parker & Smith, 2010). Theories are developed by individuals through their values, beliefs, and experiences. Nursing theories are…
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There exists a relationship between grand theories, middle range theories, and nursing practice theories in that, all these discuss about nursing as a profession and provide a guide for nursing practice. Grand theories are general concepts and are representative of a wide range of nursing practice. They, therefore, have the broadest scope. They use statements to show relationship otherwise known as assumptions to show the basis of their philosophy. Grand theories form the basis for expansion of other theories, research and development of new standards. The focus of grand theories is on the “phenomena of concern to the discipline such as person as adaptive systems, self-care deficits, unitary human beings, human becoming, or health as expanding consciousness” (Parker & Smith, 2010). Grand nursing theories are visions to be used in nursing practice. However, the limitation of these theories is that, they cannot be universally tested; hence, they have limited capabilities in guiding, explaining, and foretelling about specific situations in nursing. This is because; these theories were developed by scholars who were thinking way above their time.
Middle range theories are derived from concepts of grand theories. These theories are narrow in scope as compared to grand theories, and they offer an effective bridge between grand theories and the description of specific nursing phenomena. These theories are of advantage in the sense that, they are more applicable to nursing practices and situations. This theory allows testing of theory through research, devising strategies for nursing practice, and developing tools for nursing practice. As a result of this, middle range theories are more efficient and proficient as compared to the other theories. As a result of covering a wider scope, middle range theories are applicable in many health care institutions and other health quarters.
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