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Systemic Lupus Erethematotus - Essay Example

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Disseminated lupus erythematosus, Discoid lupus or lupus is a remarkable disease in many aspects; the primary being it is not a single but a protean disease, affecting almost every organ of the body. Second, despite the apparently normal…
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Download file to see previous pages SLE is a chronic, inflammatory, prototypic, systemic autoimmune disease affecting connective tissues such as skin, joints along with kidney and serosal membranes. Researches available indicate an environmental cause, which leads to development of the disease in individuals genetically predisposed and therefore vulnerable to it. However, the disease epidemiology is incompletely understood (Rahman & Isenberg, 2008).
The disease involves the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self antigens including DNA, nuclear proteins as well as cytoplasmic components. The disease therefore is characterized by inflammation, vasuclitis, vasculopathy. Further, a deposition of the immune complex especially in the renal glomeruli leads to a systemic inflammatory response through activation of complement (C5), or of Fc{gamma}R-mediated neutrophil and macrophages. While the activation of former leads to formation of membrane attack complexes (C5b-9) or anaphylatoxin and cell activator C5a; that of latter causes release of oxidants and proteases; both leading to injury (KEGG, 2009).
The mechanism of the disease development has been proposed to involve an abnormal apoptosis followed by elevated levels of cell death and immune intolerance. Cellular antigen redistribution to the cell surface coupled with lymphocytes targeting them leads to injury and inflammation (Andrade et al., 2000).
Diagnosis of SLE is based on the detection of high levels of antinuclear and other antibodies in the blood along with symptoms of SLE. The techniques used for the detection include urinalysis, CBC, ESR, complement levels, ANA (antinuclear antibody test) and other antibody tests, skin and kidney biopsy along with quarterly follow ups. The treatment involves control of disease symptoms and is determined by the severity of the symptoms. Acute SLE involving CNS, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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