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Arterial Hypertension - Essay Example

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Nursing Care in patients with Arterial Hypertension Your name Institute Abstract Arterial hypertension has a wider occurrence rate worldwide and a potential risk factor for the development of a variety of co-morbidities. In order to control the occurrence of the disease adequate control and preventive measures need to be employed…
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Nursing Care in patients with Arterial Hypertension Institute Arterial hypertension has a wider occurrence rate worldwide and a potential risk factor for the development of a variety of co-morbidities. In order to control the occurrence of the disease adequate control and preventive measures need to be employed. The medical fraternity and nurses in particular can effectively contribute towards patient care through proper clinical interventions and lifestyle changes that would promote the health of the patients. Nurses play a key role in the diagnosis, treatment, intervention and prevention of arterial hypertension in patients. In addition to helping patients with medication and other treatment nurses can also educate patients about the disease and empower them to improve their health and also contribute towards community health development. Arterial hypertension, generally referred to as high blood pressure (HBP), is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. High blood pressure is characterized by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140mmHg or higher and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90mmHg or higher in adults. Arterial hypertension occurs due multiple factors such as overweight or obesity, alcohol, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and high intake of sodium. In some cases they may also occur secondary to the onset of disorders such as those involving the adrenal gland. The presence of uncontrolled blood pressure could pose a risk factor for the development of various diseases that affect major organs within the body including heart, brain, kidney and eyes (Soares, Falheiros, & Santos, 2011). Given the severity of the condition and the extent to which it affects the health of the general public, the role of nurses in the promotion of good health, prevention and interventions in patients with arterial hypertension is considered to be crucial. With the rise in epidemic diseases related to arterial hypertension providing patients with health promotion strategies and various nursing interventions could help in controlling hypertension, preventing related complications and improving their overall quality of life (Guedes, Moreira, Cavalcante, Araujo, Lopes, Ximenes, & Vieira, 2012). The critical role played by nurses in the overall health promotion has been widely recognized. In case of patients with arterial hypertension nurses are involved right from detecting the illness, to the treatment afforded, monitoring and helping patients achieve disease control by educating them in various health promotion and prevention methods. Nursing assessments involve blood pressure measurement, collection of patient demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education and family history, presence of any associated diseases, monitoring recent lab results, assess level of physical activity, patient lifestyle such as diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, stress and other factors that could contribute to arterial hypertension. All these factors are considered for devising a suitable treatment regimen and nurses have to ensure that the patients adhere to the medication and take them in the correct dosage. They will also have to keep track of nursing outcomes by monitoring whether the target blood pressure is achieved and maintained, increased physical activity and intake of fruits and vegetables, decreased salt intake, reduced alcohol consumption and maintenance of body weight (Hong, 2010). In the context of health promotion and interventions, nurses can educate the patients on the importance of regular blood pressure monitoring and measure the pressure during doctor visits. They should also encourage the patients to self-check their blood pressure and record the same which will be reviewed during their doctor visits. In cases when the blood pressure of the patient is not maintained the various nursing intervention strategies come into play. Nurses will then have to focus on identifying problems including financial, cultural, educational, language and health beliefs of the patient which prevent them from control their pressure. Once these are identified nurses will have to educate and counsel the patient on the importance of adhering to the treatments in order to prevent further complications (Guedes et al, 2012; Hong, 2010). Providing emotional support to the patient has been shown to increase the patient confidence on the treatment and self-management (Guedes et al, 2012). If required patients should also be educated on the need for any suitable lifestyle changes such as physical exercise, cessation of smoking and reducing alcohol intake and stress reducing strategies . Nurses can provide health promotion by educating patients either in person or via telephone and other forms of communicative methods. It is essential that nurses provide patients with constant motivation and support with frequent reminders about medication and doctor visits in order to encourage self-care and patient involvement in the treatment. Providing the right knowledge and helping patients cope and manage their illness will result in patient satisfaction on the healthcare provided and will also encourage them to adhere to and actively involve in treatment strategies. Health promotion in the case of geriatric patient with arterial hypertension can involve activities such as walking, leisure, community and group activities. Nurses should constantly assess the impact of these activities on achieving disease control and on the overall health of the individuals. Suitable counseling strategies are required in case of patients with sexual dysfunction associated with the condition (Guedes et al, 2012). In addition nurses can also encourage patients to participate in community health management activities through advocacy and contributing to the sustainability of health programs developed to prevent and control arterial hypertension within the community. Nurses can also collaborate with institutions and professionals in this regard and work towards improving the overall quality of health in patients with arterial hypertension. Adopting leadership strategies at various levels could help achieve an effective contribution in management and prevention of the disease (Guedes et al, 2012). A community nursing diagnosis obtained from literature review is as follows. Nursing diagnosis primarily involves checking for the presence of (HBP) with a SBP of 140 mmHg or higher and a DBP of 90mm Hg or higher. Determine if the patient is overweight with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 or obese with a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m2. Check if the patient is at high risk for obesity with a waist circumference (WC) of 120 cm or greater in men and 88 cm or greater in women. Check for excess alcohol consumption of more than 2 drinks per day in the case of men and 1 drink in women. Nurses should check for the total lack or reduced physical activity and presence of smoking. Check for medication adherence if previously diagnosed for HBP. The total, partial, erratic or complete lack of adherence to medication should be checked. The persistence of HBP even after following the medication should be checked (Hong, 2010). Thus in conclusion, the role played by nurses in the control and prevention of arterial hypertension is highly critical as they are involved right from the diagnostic stage up to treatment management. In addition promoting patient health through sufficient patient education and encouragement of self-care all contribute to improving the overall health and quality of life of the patient. References Guedes, N. G., Moreira, R. P., Cavalcante, T. F., Araujo, T. L. de., Lopes, M. V de O., Ximenes, L. B., & Vieira, N. F. C. (2012). Nursing interventions related to health promotion in hypertensive patients. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 25(1), 151-156. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0103-21002012000100026&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en Hong, W.S. (2010). Evidence-based Nursing Practice for Health Promotion in Adults With Hypertension: A Literature Review. Asian Nursing Research, 4(4): 227-245. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http://www.kan.or.kr/kor/shop_sun/files/anr_img/201004/227.pdf Soares, C. A. M., Falheiros, M. R., & Santos, E. O. (2011). Nursing and preimary prevention actions for high blood pressure in adolescents. Adolesc Saude, 8 (2): 46-55. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http://www.adolescenciaesaude.com/detalhe_artigo.asp?id=273&idioma=English Read More
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