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Type 2 diabeties - Case Study Example

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Type 2 diabetes Name Institution Date Type 2 Diabetes History of Present Illness The body acquires energy by utilizing glucose, manufactured from various kinds of foods. In order to function normally, the body needs to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood by influencing the pancreas to secrete the hormone insulin…
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Download file to see previous pages In 1910, physicians were able to make progress on determining the cause of diabetes. Edward Sharpey Shafer stated that a patient showed signs of diabetes when the pancreas failed to produce a chemical, named “insulin”, which was responsible for breaking down sugar. He explained that that was why the urine contained excess sugar. In an effort to fight the disorder, doctors encouraged a fasting diet and urged patients to exercise regularly. This was in vain, as patients continued to die prematurely (Porter, 2013). In 1921, Charles Herbert and Frederick Grant made an important discovery when experimenting with dogs. They noticed that the conditioned improvement when they injected diabetic dogs with insulin extracted from healthy dogs. This also worked with diabetic people. However, doctors noticed that some people did not respond to this treatment. In 1936, Harold Himsworth classified the two types of diabetes as “insulin-sensitive” and “insulin-insensitive” with the latter being Type 2 diabetes (Porter, 2013). The 1950s brought in oral medication for patients with Type 2 diabetes, which would help stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin. ...
They previously referred to it as adult onset diabetes but as children and teenagers cases increased, they changed it to Type 2 diabetes (Porter, 2013). Differential Diagnoses It is important for a physician to determine correctly whether a patient has Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 diabetes. This is because these two types of diabetes need different treatments. Results obtained from physical examination, laboratory tests and the patient’s history can be used to make the right diagnosis that will help clinicians differentiate Type 1 diabetes from Type 2 diabetes (Colvin, & Lane, 2011). Through physical examinations, a clinician can identify Type 2 diabetes’ patients, as they may be obese; body may show manifestation of acanthosis nigricans, have chubby cheeks, and thick necks. The patients’ history can indicate whether they have Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, for example, patients controlling their diabetes with oral antidiabetic agent or diet for long periods can be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Thin patients, who have had diabetic ketoacidosis for a long period and have always depended on insulin since childhood, can be diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes (Laine, 2007). Patients who show no signs of diabetes need two abnormal test results for a clinician to make a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. The abnormal tests can be done on different days, or different tests can be done on the same day. If the two results are abnormal, the patient is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes but if only one result turns out to be abnormal, the test is repeated on a different day. If it turns out to be abnormal the second time, the patient is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Diagnosis of patients showing polyuria, weight loss or polydipsia, which are all ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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