Allergic Rhinitis Course ID Date 1. Introduction The patient analyzed for this case study is given a pseudonym of Lara Johanson, a 19 years old female Caucasian who visited hospital for persistent sneezing, flowing nose and red eyes…
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Allergic rhinitis is also known as hay fever and is supposed to be mediated by type-I hypersensitivity which is an extreme response of immune system against foreign bodies by build-up of antibodies. General nursing process begins with assessment of patient’s health history which involves their personal and family history (Burns, 2007). Secondly, an allergy assessment is performed by examining obvious symptoms and state of patient before these symptoms became apparent. Thirdly, occurrence of these symptoms is examined with relation to seasonal changes and related physical mental and physical problems. In the last stage of assessment, nature of antigen causing allergy is identified (Denise and Scandale, 2010). A patient is said to have this allergy when an ineffective breathing pattern and continuous sneezing is observed when encountered with triggers. Ineffective coping of chronic disorders is often followed by need for changes in environment of the patient. Possible problems encountered during management of the disorder include anaphylaxis, disturbed breathing pattern and failure to follow suggested therapy. The goal of interventions used for treating this patient were to restore normal breathing pattern, identify causes and control them, improve coping mechanism and avoid any complications. 2. History of the Patient A patient’s history must be comprehensive enough to provide information regarding onset and duration of the symptoms being experienced by the patient along with possible triggers. In addition to that, co-morbidity, family history of allergies, environmental exposure, and quality of life also play an important role in diagnosis. After preliminary form filing, the patient complained about seasonal flu in last five years which showed persistence despite usage of OTC medication without prescription. This was the first incident where patient entered into medical settings. The patient complained of frequent episodes of sneezing with large production and exhalation of clear mucus. Since some of the symptoms mentioned later were similar to Sinusitis therefore discharge of mucus and drainage were observed to identify if the patient has Sinusitis or allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, localized itching also confirmed it. 2.1 Response to Allergens Patient complained of 10-15 paroxysms when experiencing sneezing along with nasal congestion leading to breathing through mouth. The symptoms grew severe in the springs and especially near plantation. Patient also mentioned having episodes of atopic eczema. It is important to note that patients with atopy are at risk of developing allergic rhinitis (Burns, 2007). Lara also complained of reduced energy level and fatigue especially in late winters and spring while experiencing this state. Lara further complained of itchy nose which made her rub her nose repetitively and a crease was visible in the middle of her nose (Lang, n.d; Plaut and Valentine, 2005). Furthermore, she mentioned that the sneezing and itching is more aggressive right after waking up and in the morning. Out of symptoms defined by the patient, it was evident that she had experienced sneezing, pruritus, congestion and drainage which are some of the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis (Spector et al., 2003; Harvey, 2012). The onset of pruritus was more evident in palate, nose and throat leading to aggressive coughing. In addition to these conditions, Lara also complained about sleep apnea, overbiting and episodes of asthma. She also mentioned that her mother
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