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Pathophysiology - Research Paper Example

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The research paper "Pathophysiology" is aimed to look into the pathophysiology in detail for better understanding of different diseases, for example, anaphylaxis., that is is one of the several type 1 hypersensitivity reaction where the body is hypersensitized and develops IgE or immunoglobulin.
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Hypersensitivity results into a systemic inflammatory response leading to a spectrum of problems ranging from just runny nose to anaphylactic shock to death. This life-threatening aberration of normal immune process, that is, anaphylactic response of a sensitized human appears within minutes after administration or exposure to the specific antigen and is manifested by respiratory distress, often followed by vascular collapse or shock without antecedent respiratory difficulty. Cutaneous manifestations exemplified by pruritus or urticaria with or without angioedema are characteristic. Along with that, there may be gastrointestinal manifestations like nausea, crampy abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhoea. The materials that are able to incite an event like this may be many, among them the drugs like penicillin, insulin, antisera, local anesthetics, and other environmental agents are listed (Ewan, P.W., 1996).
We will look into the pathophysiology in detail, but for better understanding of the subject, we should learn in nutshell what happens. The normal immune response or normal humoral response against a foreign body is that plasma cells secrete IgE. The normal target for IgE is as shown in the figure on the surface of the mast cells and basophils, both involved in the inflammatory response. At the first secretion, this binds to the surface of the mast cells or basophils at specific receptor sites called Fc receptors, and such an IgE coated cell is said to be sensitized to the allergen concerned.
A later exposure

by the same allergen will reactivate the IgE. The mast cells or basophils have granules

laden in it containing a very potent inflammatory agent, histamine. This activated IgE

then processes signals for degranulation of mast cells and basophils by GPCRs or

chemokine receptors (Austen, K.F., Metcalfe D.D., 1995). These granules then release

histamine and other inflammatory substances like cytokines, interleukins, leukotrienes,

and prostaglandins into the neighbouring and adjacent tissues causing several systemic

effects, such as, dilatation of the vessels, mucous secretion, nerve stimulation, and

smooth muscle contraction. We will examine all these issues in relation to the clinical

findings of an anaphylactic process, but before that, let us see how things happen

(Montanaro, A. and Bardana, E.J. Jr., 2002).

Figure 2: Showing the Anaphylactic Process at Cellular level

Adopted from British Medical Journal, Pamela W. Ewan, ABC of Allergies: Anaphylaxis, BMJ, 1998; 316, 1442-1445.

Apart from this acute phase response of type 1 hypersensitivity reaction,

pathologically, there is also a late phase response that happens after the acute phase ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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