Immigration: Legal and Illegal - Research Paper Example

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Immigration: Legal and Illegal [Author’s Name] [Institution] The United States has been known as ‘nation of immigrants’. Indeed, since 1820 the country has accepted almost twice as many migrants and refugees as other countries altogether. Overall, the number of people who come legally has varied depending on a historical period, changes in the legislation, and economic growth rates…
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Download file to see previous pages The Unites States has a population which consists of ethnic representatives of more than 170 countries (Hanson, 2007). This paper discusses immigration and how it affects the U.S. population. It focuses on legal and illegal immigration to the United States and assesses its significance in terms of impact on the American population. Next, the paper looks into the impact of immigration on the U.S. healthcare and explains why immigration has been a matter of concern for the American public. Finally, the paper discusses the role of the Community Health Nurse in solving this issue. It concludes with implications for Community Health Nurse’s practice currently and in the future. Immigration: Legal and Illegal By recent estimates, the United States has welcomed around $70 million immigrants who came legally; the number of illegal immigrants reached the number of $11 million (Le May, 2007, p.xv). Between 1820 and 1960, the majority of legal immigrants who came to the country arrived from Europe. Since 1960, the majority have come from the countries of Latin America (53%), Asia (25%), and Europe (14%). Back in 2009, legal immigrants of Hispanic origin (two out of three – Mexicans) were found to make up 15% of the overall population; by 2050, they will make up one third of the U.S. population (Hanson, 2007). For immigration statistics, see Table 1. The effects of legal and illegal immigration on the U.S. society have been numerous. Changes in demographic situation have led to considerable changes in the economy. Whether legal or illegal, immigration has been found to make positive contributions to the economy of the United States. It has been estimated that immigrants bring $11 billion every year to the economy of the United States. On the other hand, there have been losses with regards to amount of taxes paid vs amount of received social services. Besides, immigrants often act as competitors in the job market, especially for low-paying jobs. The situation is quite controversial here: while the general public believe that immigrants take their jobs and deprive them of good working places, scholarly research provides data that the jobs taken up by immigrants are typically manual, the ones that U.S. citizens are unlikely to do. Another positive impact of immigration is maintenance of relatively high fertility rates in comparison with Europe or Japan (Lust, 2012). Table 1: Inflow of legal Immigrants: Major sending countries, 2010. Country 2010 Region 2010 Mexico 139,120 Americas 423,784 China 70,863 Asia 422,058 India 69,162 Africa 101,351 Philippines 58,173 Europe 88,730 (Adapted from Migration Policy Institute, 2007). Another sphere influenced by immigration is healthcare. It is generally believed that immigrants tend to rely on unpaid public healthcare a lot. This question has been disputed though. For example, Simon (1995) found that immigrants contribute more to the health system than they take from it. Still, many people are concerned about the rates of diseases such as TB, hepatitis, and chagas that immigrants bring with them. To illustrate, the number of TB-cases fixed among individuals born outside the States is nine times higher than the one among people born in the United States. In terms of criminal involvement, opinions differ. For instance, scholars have found that Hispanic males are nearly 4 times more likely to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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