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Ethics and IRB - Essay Example

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The current regulations in clinical research originated from a combination of history and ethical thoughts. The term ‘ethics’ is from ‘ethos’, which is a Greek word for character or custom. …
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Ethics and IRB
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Download file to see previous pages Ethics is contrasted with the term morality that frequently relates to how the way a person was raised and the values learned from the culture, parents or religion. Ethics refers to the systematic study of the basis of right or wrong decision. The regulations for protection of human subject in United States provide a minimum baseline through which every person must comply when operating the institutional review board, IRB, when obtaining consent from the research subjects, and when conducting the research. The ethical thought has shaped the regulations, though ethics require more conditions than what regulations require (Steinberg, 2007). Throughout the history of ethics, various theories have been formulated on what ethics ought to be. When these theories are critically examined, the procedure, rules and outlooks of ethics are justified. The major challenge in a practical environment, particularly in medical research, is the translation of the theoretical concepts of ethics into action. Regulations will thus come into place and help in accomplishing such tasks (Chamberlain, 2008). Development of the research ethics has evolved over time. Many tragedies have been reported through the research history involving the human subjects. Many people suffered as they participated in the research. The first research experiments on human subjects were the vaccination trial where physicians experimented with either their families, or themselves. Ethically, it is an injustice to abstract them from thinking on regulations away from the ethical context (Juritzen, Grimen & Heggen, 2011). In modern history, the discovery of atrocities by the Nazi physicians pioneered in human subject protection. Some of the experiments were considered inhumane and unethical. The voluntary consent is, therefore, essential when performing experiments on the human subjects and the research risks should be minimized so that it will benefit the society. Ethics Ethics refers to branch of study that deals with the most appropriate course of action for human beings. It involves systemizing, recommending and the defending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Ethics is a critical requirement in human life since it determines the course of action towards a certain goal or objective. When conducting the nursing research, the researchers should be aware of nursing and research ethics. The decision on what to study, participants, and termination of the interviews and documentation of the results of the case study, should be based on ethical deliberation (Melton, 2004). Ethics is crucial in nursing research since it helps to set the competence boundaries. All nurses conducting research should work within their competence boundaries. Also, ethics enable researchers make informed consent where the information has to be judged to avoid confusing the people. Valid consent for participation in research depends on understanding, and freedom from deception and coercion. The information to the participants should be presented in written form and orally (Chamberlain, 2008). Ethics helps the nurses maintain confidentiality during their research. Confidentiality is an extension for privacy and is controlled by the privacy Act. Participants should trust that confidentiality is maintained for the information they give. Ethics ensure that the participants are free from risks and injuries during the research. This should encompass physical and non-physical wellbeing. In questioning, the researcher is entitled to maintain what is ethical. Ethics also ensures quality where the review committee assesses the ethical implications of the research proposals. Also, honesty in reporting is enhanced where the researcher publishes the process and findings to allow for peer scrutiny ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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