Evidence-Based Practice Paper and Intervention Presentation on Diabetes (Benchmark Assessment) - Essay Example

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Diabetes’ New Diagnostic Tool Name:  Institution:       Diabetes Mellitus’ New Diagnostic Tool Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes is a condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The condition may present itself in three different forms including type I diabetes, type II diabetes and gestational diabetes…
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Evidence-Based Practice Paper and Intervention Presentation on Diabetes (Benchmark Assessment)
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Download file to see previous pages Primarily, DM diagnosis relies on the measurement of plasma glucose levels. This diagnostic mode is effective in detecting diabetics and pre-diabetics, but it does not offer a clear mode of assessing resultant complications, which often start in the vascular system. The diagnosis therefore, only tests tolerance to glucose, and not the associated risks such as the vascular risks (Pavri, 2001). The further assessment of risk may be necessary in monitoring the condition and administration of treatment, but it has not been available. However, a recent research by Zampetaki and others has led to the discovery of biomarkers that can be used in diagnosing and monitoring type II diabetes and its associated risk (Zampetaki et al., 2010). Description of Diagnostic Tool The new diagnostic tool uses microarray screening and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes to monitor MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which have been positively associated with the development of the condition and its progression. This new tool offers significant prognostic ability to predict and monitor type II DM. The miRNAs are small group of RNAs not involved in coding. They instead work as repressors in translation (Zampetaki et al., 2010). The miRNAs bind to complementing sites by base pairing on untranslated portions of the target mRNA. They are responsible for directing repression or degradation of the transcripts. Research has shown that miRNAs influence stress responses, oncogenesis, development and angiogenesis. They also play a significant role in endothelial cell functioning as well as the regulation of angiogenic potential and inflammations. The study found that miRNAs change prior to the start of type II DM (Zampetaki et al., 2010). The changes were narrowed to miRNA-126, which was found to profoundly change with type II DM (Larkin, 2010). This provided proof for a plasma Micro-RNA signature for patients with type II DM, thus suggesting a possible prognostic value in monitoring and diagnosing DM (Zampetaki et al., 2010). Summary of Research The study on miRNAs and DM was part of a wider Italy-based Bruneck Research on various conditions including cardiovascular diseases. The study was initiated in 1990 by “King’s College London British Heart Foundation Centre (Larkin, 2010).” The researchers sampled and measured miRNAs from a total of 822 participants. Some of the participants had type II DM, whereas; others were controls. The measurements were conducted in five phases on an annual basis from 1990 to 2005. The use of microarray screening and real-time PCR identified 700 miRNAs. The researchers then used miRNA relevance network inference technique to understand the miRNAs regulatory networks. The technique revealed changes in the levels of some five miRNAs prior to the start of type II DM. Notably, miRNA-126 was found to show a consistent decline, which was correlated to the incidence and prevalence of type II DM (Zampetaki et al., 2010). The fact that miRNA-126 is significant in wound repair and vessel health implies that its decline is an indicator of vascular risk levels associated with DM. miRNA-126 is rich in normally functioning endothelial cells and its decline associated with DM may be an indicator of the progression of deterioration caused by DM, which increases vascular risk (Zampetaki et al., 2010). As such, miRNA can be a significant prognostic tool in monitoring DM and associated risks (Larkin, 2010). The study ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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