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Diabetes - Research Paper Example

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Diabetes Name University Diabetes Diabetes is a pathological condition which occurs due to the deficiency of insulin in the human body or owing to the resistance of the body cells to insulin. The lack of insulin results in altering the normal levels of glucose in the human body which are mainly regulated by this hormone…
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Download file to see previous pages This results in a lack of insulin. Type II diabetes mellitus mainly occurs in individuals above the age of 40 years. It is characterized by a reduction in the insulin secretion as well as resistance of the cells of the body to the action of insulin. This results in reduced effectiveness of the hormone. Obesity, reduced physical activity as well as unhealthy eating habits are considered as risk factors of type II diabetes (Colledge et al 2010). Diabetes mellitus tends to disturb the normal physiology of the other systems in the human body which include the renal system, the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. The normal functioning of the kidneys may become altered which results in metabolic derangements. Neuropathies are also a common presentation in the diabetics and loss of sensory and motor reflexes in the distal limbs are seen. The cardiovascular functioning is also affected and the risk of myocardial infarctions is raised in these patients. The eyes of the diabetic patients need regular assessment as cataracts and retinopathies tend to develop in these patients. The assessment is also important as in severe cases of uncontrolled diabetes, blindness can develop. Diabetes can result in decreased blood supply to the distal limbs and this along with the neuropathy can result in ulceration of the foot mainly (Longmore 2007). Various blood tests can be used to diagnose diabetes. These include fasting and random levels of glucose in the blood and oral glucose tolerance test. After the confirmation of the diagnosis, the treatment is commenced which includes medications that increase the sensitivity of insulin like glitazones and metformin. Insulin itself is also given to the patients (Colledge et al 2010; Longmore 2007). Statistics of Diabetes in the United States of America According to the statistics for the year 2010 which were revealed in the National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2011, the number of Americans suffering from diabetes was 25.8 million. This accounted for approximately 8.3 percent of the total population of the United States. The number of diagnosed cases was indicated as 18.8 million whereas the undiagnosed cases were 7 million. 25.6 million, diabetics were mainly adults above the age of 20 years. Out of these 25.6 million people, 13.0 million were males whereas 12.6 million were females. Furthermore, 1.9 million adult Americans were diagnosed as new cases of diabetes in the year 2010. On the other hand, approximately 215,000 American under the age group of 20 were known to suffer from diabetes in the year 2010. The National Diabetes Fact Sheet also revealed the occurrence of diabetes in different races in the United States. In the year 2010, 15.7 million non-Hispanic white adults and 4.9 million non-Hispanic blacks were known to suffer from diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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