Fulminating Hepatitis B secondary to a lifetime use of IV drug abuse Introduction Understanding how fulminant hepatitis occurs is an essential step in the management and treatment of acute hepatitis. …
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This helps in identifying the initial treatment, as well as eliminating all contraindications to liver transplant. In addition, conducting proper prognosis helps in identifying patients who need a transplant and those who will survive without a liver transplant. Symptoms presented by fulminant hepatitis B require immediate medical interventions to prevent further damage on liver cells. However, in some patients, the condition is asymptomatic, which makes it difficult to detect. Patients of such nature may spread the condition to others unknowingly (Vandevante et al, 2011). Hepatitis B virus This paper looks into a case of a 51 year old patient suffering from fulminating Hepatitis B as a result of prolonged intravenous drug abuse. The fulminant condition under consideration is as a result of hepatitis B virus. Currently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of fulminant hepatitis compared to other viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus attacks and replicates within hepatocytes. In terms of structure, hepatitis B virus has an outer shell and an inner core. The inner core bares the viral DNA, enzymes and proteins including hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and HBVe antigen (HBeAg). The outer shell has the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HbsAg), which is produced in excess by hepatocytes replicating the hepatitis B virus. ...
In cases of acute HBV, a bigger number of viral DNA is cleared from liver cells through a non-cytocidal process caused by inflammatory byproducts derived from CD8+ T lymphocytes. The release of inflammatory products occurs once CD+ T cells are stimulated by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alfa, which are products of CD4+ T cells (Gish, 2009). The inflammatory byproducts lead to down regulation of viral replication as well as triggering direct lysis of infected liver cells. The destruction of infected hepatocytes through lysis occurs due to action of HBV specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Major destruction of hepatocytes in fulminant viral hepatitis is also as a result of host immune factors. HumoralAb response in fulminant hepatitis B is usually enhanced (Gish, 2009). This leads to an increased rate of HBsAG clearance from the liver. High level of anti-HBsAb is evident in patients with fulminant hepatitis B on admission. Fulminating hepatitis B may either be hyperacute, acute, and subacute. In hyperacute, features present include encephalopathy within 7 days after the appearance of jaundice, and an increased rate of getting cerebral oedema (Aspinal at al., 2011). Acute condition presents itself with jaundice to encephalopathy within8-28 days and a high risk of cerebral oedema. In subacutecondition, development of jaundice to encephalopathy may occur within 5-26 wks, and there is a minimal risk of cerebral oedema. Main clinical features in fulminating hepatitis B include encephalopathy, jaundice, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver may appear enlarged during the initial stages, but later reduces in size. Other conditions include cerebral oedema, renal failure, and
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I. Understanding of the problem A . Studies proved that drug users start young. 1 .Drug Abuse in America reported 15.9 million youth users 2. The USDA confirms that youth starts to use drugs at age 15 3. Galigher, Paul that drug use is also prevalent in adults and problem of drug addiction cannot be solved.
This can lead to drug addiction and also has adverse effects on health and physical appearance. Medicines that most commonly come under the criteria of drug abuse are pain killers, anti depressants and stimulants. Usually individuals take medicines for the causes their consultants prescribe them however studies have shown that approximately 20% individuals in the United States of America use medicines other than the reasons that have been prescribed to them.
The general conclusions and propositions are an indication that quantitative research was also done in order to support the facts in this report. Informed assertions, is the knowledge one gets through observation of the events around them. This was also employed in the report to relate what the reader knows to what the author is explaining.
Not only are teenagers abusing illegal drugs, but they are also misusing prescription drugs that have been given to them or to friends or family members by a medical professional. Studies show that one out of every nine teenagers abuses prescription medications (Brisher, 2012) while a staggering 25% have used illicit drugs in the past year (Brisher).
This discussion explores the societal, medical, and psychological theories of drug abuse and the perceptions of the society towards the use of alcohol and prescription drugs.
Sociological theories explain the causes of drug abuse to be societal with economic, social,
In order to resists temptations and cope with addiction people often need professional help. It is the reason why there is a well-developed network of social organizations and community services which help people to
Drug abuse in America has attracted a global attention because the number of drug abusers and the abused drugs keeps increasing year after year (Swartz 24). There is a need to commiserate the causes of drug
Hepatitis is one of the diseases suffered by many people worldwide whose causes vary with the type. Normally, viral hepatitis is divided into three sections including hepatitis A, B and C, and these types are determined by laboratory tests. The symptoms and the respective
The society today is poisoned with all sorts of banned substances that end up in the custody of juveniles in one way or the other, who end up consuming them inappropriately thereby putting their lives on the line, as well as clouding the future of the society as a whole. One in every three juveniles in America has had contact with drugs.
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