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Nursing the Patient in Pain - Essay Example

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Research Report – Nursing the Patient in Pain, How Effective is an Epidural Analgesia in Relieving Post-Operative Pain? Introduction This essay is concerned with justifying an intervention according to evidence based practice. It will consider the setting – post operative; the perspective – aiming at patient safety and satisfaction; the intervention – describing what happens ; comparing this method with other analgesics; and finally an evaluation, as in the Spice framework ( Gerrish and Lacey 2010) …
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Nursing the Patient in Pain
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Download file to see previous pages Searches will be made based upon these 5 aspects of epidural anaesthesia, using as a beginning the references supplied by Chumbley and Thomas. Epidural analgesia is now a commonly used technique used to manage the acute pain which comes after surgery, usually being a planned procedure, the best time to consider postoperative pain relief actually being before surgery begins. The method first became available in the 1960s ( Klein, 2011) and has increased in use especially since the1980s (Wheatley et al, 2001). Usually it is given for from 2 to 5 days postoperatively , this depending upon the surgery type undergone. After this period the patient should have recovered enough to cope with oral medication for their pain relief. ( Chumbley and Thomas, 2010, page 40). ...
ffectively, according to evidence based practice, this method reduces any risk of major adverse outcomes according to Chumbley and Thomas ( 2010, page 35). Both opioids and local anaesthetics can be used . These medications can however themselves produce serious, possibly fatal, side effects. Usually the epidural cannula will be put in place while the patient is still in the operating theatre. The role of the attending nurse is to monitor and assess patients receiving epidural anaesthetics, and to work with the evidence obtained , reporting any possible causes for concern, and so work towards preventing the development of these adverse effects. The College of Anaesthetists ( 2004 , 4.1) describe how it is the responsibility of the department of anaesthetics to ensure that properly qualified staff and appropriate protocols are in place in order that epidural analgesia can be undertaken safely and effectively with the anaesthetist, pharmacy and nursing staff working together. The epidural space into which the medication is inserted by a doctor is the potential space between the outer membrane, the dura mater, surrounding the spine and the bony vertebrae. This space contains blood vessels, nerves, connective tissues and fat. The nerves which are present work in various ways, such as passing on messages regarding movement. They also relay messages via the sympathetic nervous system to the brain about pain, touch, and temperature. This potential epidural space is present from the base of the skull down as far as the sacrum, but the spinal cord itself only extends as far as the second lumber vertebrae ( Macintyre and Schug, 2007). The patient is usually placed with their spine curved as this makes insertion somewhat easier. The needle is pushed in until it reaches the hard ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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