The Various Nursing Intervention Approaches to Decrease Pain Among Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Background Sickle cell disease or SCD has been seen as one of the diseases identified with minority groups or those with less access to health care services…
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globin chain and is usually found from people of African-American, Middle Eastern, African, Afro-Caribbean, Indian or Mediterranean descent (McMahon, Callaghan, O'Brien, and Smith, 2002, 183) This condition usually results in haemoglobin with increased blood viscosity, dehydration, acidosis, or infection polymerise with less deformable red cells (McMahon et al, 2002). The symptoms of SCD which results to vascular occlusion are painful hand-foot syndromes, cerebrovascular occlusions, chest syndromes, and splenic sequestration resulting to splenic atrophy. It is characterized by the failure of the spleen to function optimally even in the first months of birth that usually leads to overwhelming pneumococcal infection, usually at 20% mortality rate for patients under 5 years old (Overturf, 1999). Since access to health care is seen as one of the main problems for SCD patients (Routhieaux, Sarcone, Stegenga, 2005), it becomes important to identify ways to mitigate its most immediate or important effect on patient which is pain described as chronic, acute or both. Pain management is an important element of care for SCD patients and related to pain management are to identify pain treatment, control or reduction. Quality of life is an overarching goal for sick patients even those with genetic disorders such as SCD. Pain reduction is usually related to increased patient satisfaction and improved quality of life even in conditions of disease and chronic pain (Adegbola, 2009). Chronic pain has been reported by people with SCD even when they now have chances of living a longer life (Adegbola, 2009). Use of pain relieving, controlling and treatment method for patients with SCD is then important for the determination of quality delivery of health care services. Various methods are employed in Hospitals settings to treat SCD patients in reducing, controlling, and treating pain. These are influenced by the pain assessor, patient access, affordability, availability, knowledge and orientation of administrator, and other factors that may be present during prescription or administration. This research will identify these methods and their frequency of use among patients 18 years old and below. -Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to identify the pain reduction methods used during in nursing intervention and care for patients with SCD. Through identification of these methods and their result on quality of care, nursing professionals may be provided with a guide which method or methods best suit patients with ages below 18 years old. Sickle cell disease is characterized by painful experiences of patients of all ages. In the United States alone, there are about 75,000 people with SCD and that 1 out of 12 African Americans have the sickle cell trait. While it has been suggested that chronic pain is more prevalent and severe during the earlier years of study about the disease, there still are reported daily experiences of pain by SCD patients in more recent cases (Adegbola, 2009). The study will identify and chronicle the methods used in reducing or removing pain among SCD patients below eighteen (18) years old during the period January 2009 to January 2010 at Kendall Regional Hospital in-patient section. The findings will aid nurses whose and care providers to determine which best will fit their requirement or need of their patients aged 18 years old and below as well as inform them of available options and best practices in SCD pain management. -Specific aims The specific aim of this study is
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Most pregnant women fear telling their husbands that they should go, be screened, and would rather give birth to children who have sickle cell anaemia. The contributory factor to sickle cell anaemia is the fact that most people lack education about the disease and so are not aware about it.
This study will be guided by the following research questions: What is the level of knowledge among pregnant women with the sickle cell trait from the Mississippi Delta about sickle cell disease? What are the attitudes of pregnant women with the sickle cell trait from the Mississippi Delta about sickle cell disease?
This paper take a look at some of the various ways that the disease affects the lives of people and how this disease can be controlled and managed without causing death. A series of articles and books have been used here as the main sources for getting the useful information used here.
One in 12 African – Americans and 1 in 100 Hispanic –Americans has sickle cell trait (CDC 2007). It also occurs in people who originate from the Middle East, India, and Eastern Mediterranean areas. The complications associated with this trait are mild and minimal and also people with this trait are as healthy as individuals who do not have this trait, but it assumes significance because children can inherit the sickle cell gene.
It is the oxygen carrier in blood. In other words, Hemoglobin is responsible for distributing oxygen to different body organs. It should be noted that adequate oxygen supply is necessary for many of the body organs to function well. So any defects occur to the Hemoglobin can cause problems in the functioning of different body organs.
The article describes the condition of Ryan Clark, safety of Pittsburgh Steelers and the reason why he has been restricted from playing in the upcoming game against the Denver Broncos. The writer has described the limitations a professional player has to face because of sickle cell trait and has also highlighted the underlying pathology of the blood disorder.
The diseased individuals inherit the genes from their affected parents and pass it on to their offspring. In sickle cell disease, abnormal haemoglobin S replaces the normal haemoglobin A due to alterations in the genes. The function of haemoglobin is to transport oxygen and deliver it to the different organs and cells of the human body.
The author claims that the dreaded complication of the disease in adults are infarction crises which can manifest as dactylitis, femoral head necrosis, hematuria and stroke. The disease is through autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutation of the HbS gene causes a different type of hemoglobin that causes sickling of red blood cells.
Around 70,000 people, who are from sub African, even though there are some reports in India, some parts of central and South American areas, southern parts of Europe, and Caribbean regions mostly experience sickle cell anemia. Several children do not show any
Research shows that one in 12 African Americans and about one in 100 Hispanic Americans convey the sickle cell attribute, which implies they are bearers of the infection. Sickle cell sickness is brought about by a change in the hemoglobin-Beta gene found on chromosome 11.
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