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Paediatric Burns - Essay Example

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Burns Paediatric Burns Burns Burns may be defined as the tissue damage that occurs to the body caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or nuclear radiation (NIH, US). The American Burn Association has defined burn as “an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by thermal or other acute trauma” (Green, 2010).The common causes are scalds from boiling liquids like water or oil or other preparations being cooked in the kitchen or steam…
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Download file to see previous pages In present times, even 90% burns patients are being saved while 25 years ago, even 50% burns was considered fatal. Research has evolved the best treatment approaches for burns including resuscitation with fluids, cleaning the wounds, replacement of damaged tissue with skin, control of infection and dietary supports. Incidence Among the leading causes, burns in children (below 9 years are identified as the third one among injury-related deaths (Green, 2010). Burns in children are usually caused at home (Anjali et al, 2009). Scald burns have the commonest incidence in children, 80%. They occur mostly over the upper trunk and upper arms (Anjali et al, 2009). Hot bath water caused 50 % of the scalds. In most cases, the burns could have been prevented. A lapse in parental supervision and curiosity of a child are the two reasons quoted for the tragic incidents. Occasionally the child may not be able to get away from the burning substance Child abuse is another sad cause (Green, 2010). Children who are burnt have a tendency to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (Anjali et al, 2009). ...
The coagulation zone lies in the center of the burn and has necrotic tissue. The ischemic zone indicates microvascular injury causing oxygen-deprived tissues and surrounds the coagulation zone. The outermost hyperemic zone shows vasodilatation as an acute inflammatory response to the injury near it (Green, 2010). Primary Survey The first few steps of nursing care help to stabilize the patient for further treatment. Assessment of the airway is especially important in children and the cervical spine is to be protected while doing so. If the child is not responding or if one feels that the airway is compromised, an endotracheal tube is better used as the airway is much smaller in children (Green, 2010). Evaluation of the respiratory status is the next step. The child’s chest must be exposed and the rate, extent, and quality of the respiratory movements assessed. The movements of the chest wall must be watched. The breath sounds must be auscultated bilaterally (Green, 2010). Children with burns on the chest will definitely have a compromised respiration. Oxygen must be given through a non-breathing mask to ensure 100% saturation (Green, 2010). A pulse oximeter would indicate the percentage of oxygen saturation. Inhalation is diagnosed by the singed hair on the eyebrows or nose. The pulse quality, rate and rhythm need to be assessed for a picture of the circulation status. When the patient is stable, the neurologic status may be assessed. Level of consciousness may be examined using the AVPU protocol by noting the response to verbal stimuli or pain. If neurologic status is compromised, hypoxaemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, smoke inhalation, drug abuse or an earlier medical problem must be suspected (Green 2010). The clothes of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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