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Piaget's Theory of Children Development and Its Implication in Nursing - Research Proposal Example

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This paper briefly analyses Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and its implications to children and their family. Specifically, the writer of the following research would emphasize the aspects of correct children teaching and outline particular levels of Piaget's theory…
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Piagets Theory of Children Development and Its Implication in Nursing
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Piaget’s Theory
Jean Piaget was a psychologist who put forward many psychological theories during the initial half of the twentieth century with respect to cognitive development among children. He argued that both nature and nurture are equally important in the development of children. In fact he is responsible for dividing child development into different stages based on the ages of the children. “His theory is very broad, from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development, and memory” (Piaget’s Theory, n.d, p.1). This paper briefly analyses Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and its implications to children and their family.

Piaget’s theory with respect to specific developmental levels
According to Piaget’s theory stages of cognitive development can be divided into four different stages; the sensory motor development period (0-2 years), the pre-operational period (2-7 years, the concrete operational period (7-11 years and the formal operational period (after 11 years) (Piaget’s Theory, n.d, p.6-12).
During the sensory motor developmental stage, reflexes like grasping, sucking etc are the major channels for acquiring knowledge. Moreover children at this stage will repeat their activities again and again. The ability to identify objects and space will also be developed at this stage.
“Symbolic representations, egocentrism and centration are the abilities developed during the pre-operational stage”(Piaget’s Theory, n. d, p.9). In other words, children at this stage may develop the abilities to represent actions and objects with the help of symbols. The development of language also takes place during this stage which will help the children to classify and group objects in their vicinity. For example, children will develop the ability to identify eatable things or playable objects during this period.
During the concrete operational period children will acquire new skills such as logical thinking, better understanding of mental processes, uniqueness or identity of objects, reversibility of actions etc. Abstract thinking ability is the major development during the formal operational period. Inductive and deductive reasoning abilities will also be developed during this period.

Piaget’s theory: Developmental level (toddler 1 to 3 years) 
As mentioned earlier, during the toddler level, children try to understand things based on the reflexes like sucking and grasping. For example, a child who found pleasure in sucking his thumb may repeat that activity quiet regularly. The pleasure obtained from sucking the thumb will force the child to suck everything in his vicinity. Moreover, breast feeding is a regular activity children undergo during this period. The pleasure obtained through the sucking of nipples will force the child to seek such pleasure from other objects in his vicinity as well. Between the period of 12 to 18 months, children will try to analyse things based on trial and error method. Objects which have given painful experiences to the child will be avoided whereas objects which have given pleasurable experiences will be accepted again and again during this period. For example, children will identify food items during this period. They will gladly accept their favourite food and reject other foods during this period. Mental operations start to develop rapidly during the period between 18-36 months. Activities like kicking of the ball, rolling of the ball etc will be learned quickly during this period because of the development of ability to identify space, time, object etc during this period.



Piaget’s theory: Child/family assessment 
“After many years of observation, Piaget concluded that intellectual development is the result of the interaction of hereditary and environmental factors” (Jean Piaget - Intellectual Development, n. d). Heredity plays an important role in the development of a child. Even though there are some exceptions, generally it is accepted that intelligent parent may have intelligent children whereas unintelligent parents may find difficulties in having intelligent children. It should be noted that suitable environment may convert an unintelligent person into an intelligent person. But at the time of birth, the intelligence of most of the children depends on the intelligence of their parents.

Piaget’s theory: Therapeutic Communication & teaching of the children and family
Therapeutic communication between the nurses and the patients is important in providing effective healthcare to the patients. In the case of children, piglets’ theory of cognitive development will help the nurses to communicate effectively with the children. It should be noted that toddlers may not have the ability to communicate verbally with the nurses with the help of a language. Still nurses can communicate effectively with them if they know the basics of Piaget’s cognitive development theory. People use both verbal and nonverbal channels for communication. Toddlers normally use the nonverbal means to communicate with others. For example, touching is a nonverbal mean of communication. Toddlers touch their own body and that of others to communicate certain things to others. Nurses should realise the needs of the toddlers from their nonverbal communication activities and for that purpose, Piaget theory will help them. Nurses can teach the children, and their parents about the things going on at different stages of development of a child so that the parents can better understand the needs of their children.
References
Jean Piaget - Intellectual Development (n. d). Retrieved from
http://www.sk.com.br/sk-piage.html
Piaget’s Theory (n.d). Retrieved from http://psych.colorado.edu/~colunga/p4684/piaget.pdf Read More
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