Chronic Illness Prevention in Children in Australia September 14, 2011 Chronic Illness Prevention in Children in Australia Purpose The purpose of the study, which follows, is to convey information on the understanding of the role of the registered nurse in child and adolescent health in Australia…
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Due to the enormity of the issue of chronic illness, this report will focus on children between the ages of 5 and 19 years of age. This report will conclude by identifying recommendations that nurses can implement in their role as primary health practitioners. Definitions Chronic Disease: A chronic disease is characterized by having a duration “that has lasted or is expected to last at least six months. Has a pattern for recurrence, or deterioration. Has a poor prognosis and produce consequences, or sequaelae that impact the individual’s quality of life.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Diabetes (diabetes mellitus): This is a chronic condition in which “the body makes too little of the hormone insulin or cannot use it properly. This raises the blood level of the body’s major energy source, the sugar glucose, and causes other widespread disturbance of the body’s energy processes.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Type 1 diabetes: This is a chronic condition, which generally arises in childhood or youth and is known as ‘juvenile onset’ diabetes “marked by a complete lack of insulin and needing insulin replacement for survival.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Type 2 diabetes: The most common form of diabetes, “occurring mostly in people aged 40 years and over and marked by reduced or less effective insulin.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Cancer: This includes a “range of diseases where some of the body’s cells begin to multiply out of control, can invade, and damage the area around them, and can also spread to other parts of the body to cause further damage.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Cystic fibrosis – This is a “life threatening genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory system (lungs), the digestive system (pancreas and sometimes liver) and the reproductive system. The mucus glands of people with cystic fibrosis secrete very thick sticky mucus.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Cerebral palsy: This includes a “range of disabilities associated with movement and posture. ‘ Cerebral’ refers to the brain and ‘palsy’ means weakness or lack of muscle control. The disorder is caused by a permanent, nonprogressive brain defect or lesion present at birth.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Epilepsy: This disease involves a “disturbance of brain function marked by recurrent fits and loss of consciousness.” (Child and Youth Health Intergovernmental Partnership, 2004) Background Asthma is reported to be the most common of all chronic diseases among children in Australia and is cited as well as being the most common of all reasons that children in Australia are hospitalized. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is reported to be on the rise among children in Australia. (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005, p.2) Other chronic diseases affecting children in Australia include those of Cancer, Cystic Fibrosis, Cerebral Palsy and Epilepsy. Discussion There have been a great many possible risk factors linked to the development of chronic disease in childhood however, it is reported that of these risk factors that only a
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Older people are extremely vulnerable to the risks of dementia. However, dementia is not the only a problem of older people: mental health nurses face numerous challenges, when caring for patients with dementia. Caring for older people with dementia is a challenging task.
About 8.5% of Australia’s gross domestic product, amounting to approximately $A79 billion is in health care. Through the years, the Commonwealth accounted for 46% of health care spending, the State and Territory governments shouldered 23%, and remainder of spending in health care was attributed to private sources (Weller & Veale, 1999).
Aboriginal Australians, more particularly, endure more infirmities, are more prone to suffer from disability or impairment and poor wellbeing, and, consequently, will die much earlier than non-Aboriginal Australians (Carpenter & Tait, 2009). According to Connor-Fleming and Parker (2001), Aboriginal Australians also have higher rates of infant mortality and higher prevalence of death from violent, poisoning, accident, and, currently, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
It has one of the best health systems as well. The health system is, however, biased as some people in Australia do not have access to good healthcare, especially the Aborigines, who are the natives of Australia. They live in marginalized areas where there are no hospitals or clinics, do not earn well from employment and do not feed well.
As such, the diversity of these needs may mean that the National Health System (NHS) alone cannot meet them. It is clear that efficient discharge from hospital requires there be a working network between the NHS, local authorities, housing organisations, and other primary care and voluntary or independent organisations to delivery service needs to the community.
The Australian health care system is second to none in imparting services to the vulnerable immigrants and refugees. By focusing on health care for the immigrants those in charge of the Australian health care system are not only providing the most basic services to the community but are also proving their vigilance is constant and foolproof.
Indigenous Australians are the least healthy as compared to the remaining Australian population, with lower life expectancy at birth, and greater burden of illness including higher rates of mortality, disability, and hospitalization (O’Connor-Fleming & Parker, 2001).
nder, culture and ethnicity, educational background, disability and socioeconomic status(Cerasa,2011).For instance, several studies confirm that Indigenous Australians get lower standards of healthcare when compared to the rest of the Australian population (Shepherd, Li &
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