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Asthma and Pathophisiological Template Case Study - Essay Example


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Asthma and Pathophisiological Template Case Study

Asthma affects 300 million people worldwide with increasing prevalence among children. According to World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 15 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost and 250,000 asthma deaths are reported worldwide with 500, 000 annual hospitalizations in individuals 18 years old and younger (Harver& Kotses, 2010, 19). In order to understand the pathophysiology of asthma, one must first understand the normal physiological process of a normal airway, particularly air exchange in the lungs. Lungs primary function is to deliver oxygen into the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. In the lungs are small air sacs called alveoli where exchange of gases occur (Harver& Kotses, 2010, 19). The bronchioles, which are classified as smaller tubes are very fragile compared to the larger tubes of the respiratory system such as the trachea as these smaller tubes lacks cartilaginous rings and only have a layer of smooth muscle. As the muscle contracts, airways are extremely narrowed due to the lack of cartilaginous support. Thus, contraction of the smooth muscles in the lungs may increase airway resistance and diminish airflow (Harver& Kotses, 2010, 19). In addition, there are cells that line the respiratory tract called the respiratory epithelium which vary from hair-like structure cilia and mucus-producing cells, and small blood vessels lying beneath the airway that supplies nutrients to the respiratory epithelium and smooth muscle cells. Asthma is generally

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categorize as an inflammatory disease in response to triggering stimuli such as allergens, irritants, colds, exercise, and respiratory infections (Harver&Kotses, 2010, 20). Based on Jason’s history, possible triggering stimuli of asthma exacerbation are history of recurrent cough when he was 6 months old, family history of hay fever and eczema, and history of respiratory infections.Jason’s exposure to triggering stimuli will cause the initial release of inflammatory mediators from bronchial mast cells, epithelial cells, and macrophages and will lead to the activation of other inflammatory cells. This will cause inflammation of the bronchioles and increased secretion of mucus-producing cells which explains Jason’s condition of having cough and runny nose two days prior to admission. Leak of inflammatory cells will cause edema and the autonomic neural control of airway tone and epithelial integrity will be altered leading to hyperresponsiveness of airways smooth muscles and airway obstruction. Hyperresponsiveness of Jason’s airways smooth muscles has led to clinical manifestations of audible wheezing sound, severe dyspnea, and supraventricular, intercostal, and subcostal retractions. Continuous narrowed airways brought by asthma exacerbation eventually affect oxygen supply to the vital organs of the body especially the brain. Affectations of Jason’s nervous system includes mental state of being anxious and the ability to respond only in single words. As Jason suffers from asthma, various structural and functional changes may occur such as airway disturbance, filling of mucous plugs in the airways, larger and numerous mucus-producing c
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Case Study Regarding Asthma and a Pathophysiological Template Date Abstract The essay aims address the following objectives: (1) toexplain the process that leads to the structural and functional changes resulting from Jason’s asthma; (2) to explain how four of Jason’s clinical manifestations are related to the structural and functional changes; and (3) to select and discuss two drugs that have been used in the treatment of Jason’s asthma…
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vrussel added comment 23 hours ago
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The topic of "Asthma and Pathophisiological Template Case Study " is quite often seen among the assignments in college. Still, this document opens a fresh perspective of seeing the question. I’ll use the manner for my own document.
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