Watson’s Theory of Caring in Modern Healthcare Setting.
Quality improvement programs, mainly associated with ‘culturally competitive care’, have intensified nurses’ workload and responsibilities in modern healthcare setting…
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At this juncture, Jean Watson’s ‘Theory of Human Caring’ seems to be a vital tool for meeting the objectives of current day nursing practices. Jean Watson Jean Watson was born at West Virginia in United States. She got her graduation from the Lewis Gale School of Nursing in 1961 and earned a B.S. in 1964 from the University of Colorado. After two years of study, Watson acquired an M.S. in psychiatric and mental health nursing from the same university. In 1973, she earned a Ph.D. after completing a series of researches in the field of educational psychology and counseling. Watson focused her researches in the area of human caring and loss and published the theory “nursing: human science and human care” in 1988. An Overview of the Theory The theory of human caring proposes that caring is the ‘most valuable attribute’ that the nurses has to serve up the humanity (The core concepts of Jean Watson’s theory). In the opinion of the theorist, if patients do not get effective caring, disease may be cured but illness will remain. Watson strongly argues that caring is the essence of nursing without which patients’ health cannot be retained. The theory suggests that caring greatly helps a person to attain control, to become more knowledgeable, and thus enhance his/her health. Watson also suggests that higher emphasis must be given on patients’ autonomy and freedom of choice, which in turn would add to client self knowledge and self control. According to Blais, Hayes, Kozier, and Erb (2006, p.107), the transpersonal caring relationship, caring occasion, and ten carative factors constitute the elements of Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Watson’s ‘The ten primary carative’ are; The formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values. The installation of faith-hope. The cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others. The development of a helping-trust relationship. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings. The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making. The promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning. The provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment Assistance with the gratification of human needs. The allowance for existential-phenomenological forces. (Source: ‘Jean Watson’s Philosophy of Nursing’). The first three carative factors represent a well structured philosophical foundation for the science of caring. The remaining seven carative factors emerge from the foundation established by the first three factors. This theory has seven assumptions also. According to Watson (2006), the essence of these assumptions is that caring is the central element of nursing and it must be practiced interpersonally in order to acquire the desired results. The carative factors constitute the concept of caring and hence it meets the satisfaction of certain human needs. Watson says that the science of caring is complementary to the science of curing or caring is more healthogenic than is curing. In her theory, Watson has clearly classified various human needs according to its nature and importance. She believes that each human need must be equally considered in order to maintain a quality nursing care that promotes optimal health. Watson’s ordering of needs is of three types such as biophysical needs, psychophysical needs, and psychosocial needs. The biophysical needs (lower order needs) include need for food and fluid, elimination, and ventilation. At the same
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Several caring theories have been developed to enhance and preserve caring; some of which are Watson's theory, Leininger's Theory, Roach's theory and Boykin's theory. Watson theory, proposed by Jean Watson, is basically philosophy of caring and science and examines relatedness of various aspects of nursing like human science, human experiences, human caring, phenomena and human processes.
Bombarded by topics on care and healing, this revisited neglected aspects in nursing--foremost is caring persona. In theory of care in nursing, there is an attempt to enhance clients’ well being through “harmony within the mind, body and soul” (Basavanthappa, 2007, p.
She calls this caring attitude as composed of “carative” factors (from the word care) and is encapsulated in her seven major assumptions as contained in her theory of nursing. Furthermore, she elaborated on this theory in her ten “carative” factors that should serve as a guide in today's complex world of nursing.
From the University of Colorado, she earned her undergraduate degree in nursing and psychology, her master’s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing, and continued to earn her Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling. (Cara, 2003) Though she has always taken personal interest in the convalescence procedure of the patients under her supervision, but also she obtained command over various departments of the nursing profession by earning her Doctorate in the discipline.
In the contemporary age, a vast majority of the health care systems are going through a phase of administrative restructuring all over the world. This has potentially increased the risk of dehumanization of the care provided to the patients. Consideration of caring as the central objective of nursing requires the nurses to make an objective effort to secure patient care in their educational practices.
Watson’s Theory of Caring.
The last few decades witnessed an increasing emphasis on the role of nurses in the healthcare delivery system throughout the world. This increased responsibility brought increased workload and increased stress in the workplace.
Watson’s Caring Theory in Postpartum Disorder
Nursing theories explain phenomena relating to clinical practice particularly in providing care. It may define or describe concepts, health-related events and propose something about them either by explaining functions, relationships, associations and performance, among other related concepts (Rich, 2011, p.606).
Therefore this paper chooses “Swanson’s Middle Range Caring Theory” to address a miscarriage scenario. The situation involves a patient experiencing regular but uncomfortable contractions and progressively becoming stronger after miscarriage (Adolfsson et al., 2004).
Arts and humanities are the major constituents of caring science. Caring science can also be divided into a world of unity where people are united by the spirit of offering assistance to each other and the fact of being in relation or the relations ontology.