Running Head: HIP HOP Hip Hop & Crisis in African American Community [Name] [University] Hip Hop & Crisis in African American Community Introduction Hip-hop is an African-American, Afro-Caribbean, Latin American youth alternative culture that incorporates rap music, graffiti, and break-dancing as central to its cultural expression (George, 1998; Rose, 1994)…
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Its story is at once imbedded in time/history, geography, culture, technology, industry, politics, and aesthetic frames. In its short history from the mid 1970s to present, numerous critical, socio-cultural, and empirical studies have sought to dissect and explain away its reality. However, this paper attempts to review the literature through historical perspectives. Body Hip-hop was born out of a number of social, political, and artistic occurrences. George (1998) starts hip-hop's story at the end of the 1960s, a period of hopes for total racial integration-Martin Luther King's dream. However, as the 1970s progressed, the reality of inequalities was reiterated. In terms of what was reflected in art, the expression of the people, most obvious and mobile with the music, segregation continued. Rock and roll was predominantly for White artists and audiences, whereas rhythm and blues was African-American (Kitwana, 2006). In the 1970s, profits from the rock music revolution helped to create, develop, and further consolidate a corporate musical industry that was evidenced by mergers such as Warner-Reprise, Elektra-Asylum, and Atlantic. These corporations recognized the potential profits available from the Black performers who could access not only the Black community, but also "cross-over" to White teens. The major record labels created "Black music" divisions, encouraging commercial-cultural crossover. This potential for broad audience access is one reason that "disco" came into being in the 1970s. As with many popular music forms of the era, it had African American roots. Scholars and those in the musical recording industry have consistently argued about the influential nature of Black culture and music, and evidence exists to support its apparent relationship to White, or mainstream music and culture. Garofalo (1993) posits the links between genres, and notes that the history of popular music in America "can be described in terms of Black innovation and popularization" (p. 57). Disco was an example, coming as it did at the end of the civil rights/Black power era, it was at once an accumulation of African-American and American popular music experience. The musical genre was short for discotheque, a place where people could go to dance, drink, and listen to this form of music. George (1998) and Werner (1999) note the rise of disco from the underground clubs of New York and Los Angeles, during the mid to late 1970s, that paved the way for initial elements of break dancing and future samples for rap. Werner (1999) notes disco's musical roots in Black dance music (p. 205). Disco was at first "high-quality Black dance music, with Kenny Gamble and Leon Huffs elegantly funky Philly Sound productions and the lush sounds surrounding Barry White's bass voice the artistic benchmarks" (George, 1998, p. 7). Whereas the club provided the place and the music industry provided the means for increased musical crossing over, the advent of synthesizer allowed for the ability to manipulate prerecorded sound for smoother transitions between songs. This inaugurated the cult of the club OJ who did the "mixing." As disco became mainstream around 1975, it lost much of its freshness and was further stigmatized by an association with the gay rights movement (Werner, 1999, p. 205). To chants of "Disco sucks!"
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This perplexed me as well, primarily because I think we become desensitized to an increase in such sexual innuendos when we are bombarded with them on a daily basis. Only when we take a step back and really analyze the content of music videos, for example, do we really begin to see what has happened over time.
The music is believed to have started in the early 1970s by African American communities living in New York. Most hip-hop fans consider the music to have existed long before this period. It is believed that the music was in existence during the time of slavery.
It can be referred to as an art that is essentially formed from hip-hop music. It involves various styles of dances within this category as per the findings in this paper. During this period, it evolved through distinct elements that made up the different styles.
Hip hop started as a non commercial, independent musical and cultural form of expression. Rather it was all about enjoyment and having fun, nobody thought it could fetch money. DJ Kool Herc gets viewed to be the founder of hip hop; he could mix samples of existing records with his own shouts to the dancers and crowds.
For purposes of this brief analysis, that was demonstrated in the essay the author will focus upon the individuals that brought hip-hop to prominence. In addition, a brief an ancillary discussion will be raised with regards to the influences that contributed to the genres prevalence and somatic elements enjoyed within it.
According to the author of the essay, hip hop culture is defined as a new revolutionary movement in music and art, which is expressed through the artistic means, which are called elements. It should be pointed out that the music business today is in most cases just making money and not real art.
Despite the amendments, the southern governments enacted new black codes that authorized the arrest of the Blacks without visible ways of support (the laws enacted were called vagrancy laws), denied Blacks to acquire land, legislated curfew laws, prohibited the
The author of the text comments on the impact of the Afro-American culture, stating that the influence of the African American culture has imparted a highly influential impact on the American society with several implications. To be precise, different aspects of the Afro-American oral communication as a part of the American popular culture are analyzed in the paper.
It is through the hip hop culture that most of the African-American community prides itself with its beliefs and set of principles that guide its everyday actions. From the language to the fashion and music, hip hop culture has
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