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Contact allergy to cinnamon case report - Assignment Example

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This is unlike Contact dermatitis that is most common among humans. Its occurrence is also limited in the mouth thus eliminating the chance of it affecting the skin as is the case of contact dermatitis. The condition…
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Contact allergy to cinnamon case report
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Summary of Contact Allergy to Cinnamon: Case Report Cause Allergic contact stomatitis is a rare form of oral disorders. This is unlike Contact dermatitis that is most common among humans. Its occurrence is also limited in the mouth thus eliminating the chance of it affecting the skin as is the case of contact dermatitis. The condition is caused by aromatic and flavouring compounds found in chewing gums, toothpaste, ice cream, soft drinks, candies and mouthwash. Some of the common compounds include carvone, spearmint essential oil, menthol essential oil, cinnamaldehyde, and cinnamon essential oil. Other compounds that can also cause contact stomatitis include formaldehyde, the acrylates used in making dentures and several metals i.e. nickel, palladium, gold and mercury used in dental amalgam may also cause contact stomatitis.
Allergic contact stomatitis is classified as type IV hypersensitivity reaction and prone to people who have previously been sensitized to the allergen. Its reaction falls under “delayed hypersensitivity reaction” as it several hours or even a day for the antigen reaction to become evident. The allergic process occurs in two phases namely the induction phase and the effector phase. In the induction phase, the allergens which have infiltrated and bound themselves to epithelial protein thus forming complexes are phagocytised by macrophages, specialized cells. The cells then move to regional ganglia stimulating production of the memory T lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are responsible for keeping memory of the antigen so as to trigger a more rapid immune response in the event of subsequent occurrences of the antigen. The effector phase is characterised with the activation and production of T lymphocytes (CD4 cells) by the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 cells) produces in the first phase. The cytotoxic T lymphocytes bind to the epithelial cells causing the death of cells that present the complexes. There are two basic reasons as to why this condition is not common despite high rates of exposure to the allergens: first, saliva ensures constant cleaning of the mucosa thus minimizing contact time with the allergen; and, second, the high degree of vascularisation of the mucosa increases the rate of antigen absorption, reducing further prolonged exposure to these substances.
Contact stomatitis manifest in a number of symptoms which include tissular edema, erythema, cracking, ulcerative areas, hyperkeratosis, desquamation, and vesicles. They manifest in the area that is exposed to the causal agent and may be with or without pain. Its appearance is determined by the duration of exposure and the concentration of the causal agent. A case study of a patient who revealed white and red lesions indicate that contact stomatitis could easily be confused with other more or less serious disorders. It is worth noting that no intraoral sites are spared from contact stomatitis. However, this condition at most times affects the edges of the tongue, the attached gingival, the buccal mucosa and the hard plate. Patch tests have been used by some practitioner in diagnosing the condition. The disadvantage of this diagnosis is in its inconsistency of outcomes. Something else that makes diagnosis of the condition difficult is the structural differences that exist between the skin and the oral mucosa. Contact stomatitis is treated by eliminating the allergenic compound. It takes up to 2 weeks for the lesions to disappear. In case of severity of the condition, topical corticosteroid in the form of mouthwash, ointment or gel are used in the treatment
The report concludes that the major source of information about the condition is from healthcare questionnaire or a direct interview with the patient. This allows the clinician to establish and interpret the linkage between consumption of the allergenic substance and the symptoms that appear.
Reference
Tremblay, S. (2008). Contact Allergy to Cinnamon: Case Report. JCDA. June 2008, Vol. 8, No.5. Read More
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