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In order to attain this end, the following objectives will be explored:
This literature review critically evaluates and analyses elements and aspects of tourism development and how it can be applied to an African country – Mozambique. The study will critique various elements of the current situation of tourism which is steeped in mass tourism and provide an exegesis on the future development of tourism by integrating sustainable tourism and other approaches of tourism planning and development.
Tourism is widely viewed as the movement of persons from their normal place of habitation to another place for a range of activities within a short period of time (Beaver, 2013). This include various activities like vacationing, leisure travel and business travel with the view of staying in a new environment and visiting places of interest (Varley, et al., 2013).
Tourism provides some kind of leisure and relaxation to individuals in a given area. In the larger scope, tourism is a process through which local businesses in a tourist destination are likely to sell their products and services to persons from other countries (Wehrli, et al., 2013). This brings about some form of foreign exchange that can be used to develop a given nation or community.
The differences in the way tourism benefits and revenues are distributed relates to the arrangements in the community or society. This difference is highly accentuated in relation to the tourism approach used in a community – whether there is a mass tourism system or an alternative tourism system.
Sustainable tourism developed as a part of sustainable development which is a concept that examines the moderate and reasonable usage of the earth’s resources in order to ensure that future generations will also benefit from the earth’s resources (Miller & Twining-Ward, 2013; Pigram & Wahab, 2014; Pender & Sharpley, 2012).
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Macro-economic factors, especially currency fluctuation, have significant impact on tourism in a country. Recently, Swiss franc has been strengthening against the world’s major currencies such as the U.S. dollar, euro, and British pound. Currency fluctuation has had negative impacts on tourism in Switzerland because it has led to high prices that have discouraged will-be tourists to shy away from visiting the country.
To this end, Wilks, Pendergast and Leggat (2006) observe that the reason for the emergence of terrorism cannot be only attributed to the factors of poverty and acute frustration related to social problems. Poverty and social frustration are not the potential contributors to the spread and development of terrorism in developed countries around the world.
These factors make it interesting to study the attitudes and behaviours of consumers who are indulging in this growing market, and to see how their world is defined within this sphere. The purpose of this essay is to explore the characteristics of a responsible tourist, and to investigate their opinions of the market.
Sustainable tourism endeavours to ensure that the impact of tourism activity exerts the lowest effect on the environment as well as the local culture where it takes place. Sustainable tourism is also concerned about the impact that the tourism activity have on the local people and strives to generate employment opportunities for the local people so that they can benefit following tourism activities that takes place in their immediate ecosystem.
Easterby et al 2008, p.4 observe that the concept of management has shifted in meaning from the traditional classical textbook definitions, especially with the rise of the service industry, and realization that managerial skills are essential for everyone in the organization, and the increasing focus of management on intangibles such as quality and knowledge rather than resources, capital and technology.
The aim of the paper is to show all the developments of travel and tourism industry. The development of travel and tourism may be broadly attributed to the following factors: improvement in transportation, development of mass tourism/all-inclusive package holidays, decline of seaside resorts, socio-economic changes etc.
In this regard, the broad elements of the sustainable tourism management model include planning and creating opportunities for economic gain in the South of Spain region. This has been studied in context of the literature above with an eye on legislation and various other factors that play up on sustainable tourism development within a particular region.