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The Process of Parenting - Essay Example

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According to Yang (2009), discipline refers to the process of teaching a child on ways to act or behave and sense concerning things that they have done, that are wrong thing. Moreover, discipline assists children to develop a good feeling, and create a chance to correct their…
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The Process of Parenting The Process of Parenting Describe the difference between discipline and punishment. Give examples of each
According to Yang (2009), discipline refers to the process of teaching a child on ways to act or behave and sense concerning things that they have done, that are wrong thing. Moreover, discipline assists children to develop a good feeling, and create a chance to correct their mistakes leading to a change of their behaviors. On the other hand, punishment focuses on making a child understand that they have done a mistake; in fact, the child is made to understand what they should do. Nevertheless, there are situation when punishment fails to make sense to the child. In fact, the punishment may be not related to mistakes done by the child.
For instance, an example of punishment and discipline can be applied to distinguish both of them when a child does wrong things. In this case, of a four-year old child throws his or her crayons on the floor, punishment can be inflicted by telling them that they are undisciplined and slapping their fingers. On the other hand, discipline was be imposed by making them pick their crayons; in fact, there is a need to issue them an explanation that by throwing the crayons on the floor, they can get broken. In addition, the crayons should also be put out of their reach for a period.
List and briefly describe the first four stages of Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
1. Trust Versus Mistrust (birth - 1 year)
Erikson asserted that during this stage, children develop a sense of fundamental trust and their aptitude to influence events surrounding them. However, their development is based on the regularity, predictability and consistency, which leads to development of a sense of trust. On the other hand, a child also carries a fundamental sense of mistrust if they are subjected to a harsh and inconsistent, unreliable conditions (Doug & Clifton, 1995).
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2 - 3 years)
Erikson claims that this is a stage involving development of a particular amount of independence or autonomy. Moreover, during their stage the children require support offered to avoid encountering of only failures and mockery. On the other hand, if children are criticized, over controlled or denied a chance to assert themselves, they develop a feeling of inadequacy, thereby becoming dependent upon others. In this case, they develop a low self-esteem, which is considered a sense of shame (Doug & Clifton, 1995).
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 - 5 years)
Erikson contends that children undergo frequent assertion, whereby they commence planning their activities and initiating these activities. Therefore, in this stage they get a chance to develop a sense of initiative and security through their ability to make decisions. On the other hand, if they are criticized and controlled, they develop a sense of guilt and lack of self-initiative (Doug & Clifton, 1995).
4. Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority (6 - 12 years)
Erikson suggested that a child, who is encouraged and reinforced for their initiative develop a feeling of being industrious and confidence through their ability to achieve set objectives. On the other hand, if their initiatives are not encouraged due to restrictions imposed by their parents, they develop a feeling of inferiority and inability to achieve set objectives (Doug & Clifton, 1995).
Yang, K. (2009). Discipline or Punish? Some Suggestions for School Policy and Teacher Practice. Focus on Policy: Language Arts. 87(1): 49-61.Retrived on Feb 9 2013 from: Doug, D. & Clifton, A. (1995). Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Haverford. Retrieved on Feb 9 2013 from:   Read More
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