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: Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats - Research Paper Example

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Organisms undergo many changes with aging due to weakening of their physiological functions. Almost all organs at least undergo significant changes…
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: Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats
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Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats? Number Discussion: Discussion of results in relation to previous studies:
The aim of the study is to show whether there is a decrease in nuclear protein levels in the renal medulla and cortex as rats age. Organisms undergo many changes with aging due to weakening of their physiological functions. Almost all organs at least undergo significant changes in function. Renal functions hence show significant changes with aging. Due to aging, rats develop renal pathology such as; tubular casts, glomerulosclerosis (Kachirskaia, 2008), interstitial fibrosis and infiltration by inflammatory cells this in turn explain the impaired functions in these organisms. Experiments show that with aging renal disease becomes the cause of morbidity in rats.
Previous studies have shown that nuclear proteins in rats decrease with increasing age. For example, in a certain study it revealed that, there was a decrease in production of the signaling proteins such as Akt kinase in aging rats in spite the absence of any damage in the renal cells. Also, there was a reduction in the activity of Ras, p34cdc2 due to damage in the renal tissue (Laks, 2011). It has also been found out that the MRNA level, the binding activity of DNA, and the nuclear protein in the cortex and medulla of old rats decreases with age. A study has also shown that with age, there is an increase in the amount of Sirt1 protein extracts available in the kidney, liver, heart and lungs. However, the activity per molecules of this protein decreases with increasing age in rats. This suggests that there are less active protein molecules in the aged animals. (Martha, 2007)
The key factor that has been associated with a decrease in the nuclear proteins of the medulla and cortex of the kidney is the increase of oxidative DNA damage. It is estimated that at least 5000 breakages of single DNA strands occur during a single cycle due to ROS production. These results in accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage that is induced ROS (Rothman, 2008). This in turn leads to induction or arrest of transcription, replication errors. Thus from this experiment, it is clear that, with aging in rats, there is induced damage to nuclear proteins due to increased induction of oxidative stress.
Aging in rats is associated with a decrease in the expression of renal klotho protein and this explains why there is kidney damage with age. Older rat moreover experience kidney damage that is associated with a decrease in MnSOD expression in the kidney (Ashton, 2012). This occurs in both the medulla and the cortex.
Discussion of unusual or unexpected findings and what they mean:
This experiment was conducted using the cortex and the medulla of three months and twenty two months old rats and the results obtained. Their nuclear protein levels in the cortex and the medulla were then compared in relation to their ages. The results showed that there was an increase in the nuclear proteins of both the medulla and the cortex with the increasing age of rats. The findings will then be considered as abnormal due to different reasons. These include
Inappropriate volumes might have been used or there was poor evaluation of the results in the laboratory. High concentration of solution such as NaCL increases the amount of proteins in the medulla. The content of proteins in rat’s medulla can be high due to osmosis
Future research:
The study should include also try to determine the effects of other factors such as oxygen tension and urea level. This study should develop an argument about the role of nuclear protein in cortex and medulla of old kidney. Further studies are needed to reveal the important of total and individual nuclear proteins in different zones of the old kidney. The study should be carried out on different parts of the kidney since the protein levels differs in various parts due to different on size of renal collecting tubes proliferation.
References
Ashton, Q. (2012). Issues in life sciences: Cellular biology: 2011 edition. ScholarlyEditions.
Chi, ,. N. (2010). Coordination of the molecular events for nuclear protein import by the nuclear import factor. Northwestern University.
Kachirskaia, I. (2008). Lysine methylation of nuclear proteins: Discovery of novel methylation sites and effectors. Stanford University.
Laks, M. S. (2011). Modulation of nuclear protein kinase activity and phosphorylative modification of histone H1 subspecies during the prereplicative phase of rat liver regeneration. Northwestern University.
Martha, J. (2007). Issues in general science and scientific theory and method. ScholarlyEditions.
Rothman, S. (2008). Membrane protein transport. Elsevier.
Steve, J. (2012). Issues in clinical medicine research and practice. ScholarlyEditions. Read More
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