Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

: Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Organisms undergo many changes with aging due to weakening of their physiological functions. Almost all organs at least undergo significant changes…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.8% of users find it useful
: Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample ": Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats"

Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats? Number Discussion: Discussion of results in relation to previous studies:
The aim of the study is to show whether there is a decrease in nuclear protein levels in the renal medulla and cortex as rats age. Organisms undergo many changes with aging due to weakening of their physiological functions. Almost all organs at least undergo significant changes in function. Renal functions hence show significant changes with aging. Due to aging, rats develop renal pathology such as; tubular casts, glomerulosclerosis (Kachirskaia, 2008), interstitial fibrosis and infiltration by inflammatory cells this in turn explain the impaired functions in these organisms. Experiments show that with aging renal disease becomes the cause of morbidity in rats.
Previous studies have shown that nuclear proteins in rats decrease with increasing age. For example, in a certain study it revealed that, there was a decrease in production of the signaling proteins such as Akt kinase in aging rats in spite the absence of any damage in the renal cells. Also, there was a reduction in the activity of Ras, p34cdc2 due to damage in the renal tissue (Laks, 2011). It has also been found out that the MRNA level, the binding activity of DNA, and the nuclear protein in the cortex and medulla of old rats decreases with age. A study has also shown that with age, there is an increase in the amount of Sirt1 protein extracts available in the kidney, liver, heart and lungs. However, the activity per molecules of this protein decreases with increasing age in rats. This suggests that there are less active protein molecules in the aged animals. (Martha, 2007)
The key factor that has been associated with a decrease in the nuclear proteins of the medulla and cortex of the kidney is the increase of oxidative DNA damage. It is estimated that at least 5000 breakages of single DNA strands occur during a single cycle due to ROS production. These results in accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage that is induced ROS (Rothman, 2008). This in turn leads to induction or arrest of transcription, replication errors. Thus from this experiment, it is clear that, with aging in rats, there is induced damage to nuclear proteins due to increased induction of oxidative stress.
Aging in rats is associated with a decrease in the expression of renal klotho protein and this explains why there is kidney damage with age. Older rat moreover experience kidney damage that is associated with a decrease in MnSOD expression in the kidney (Ashton, 2012). This occurs in both the medulla and the cortex.
Discussion of unusual or unexpected findings and what they mean:
This experiment was conducted using the cortex and the medulla of three months and twenty two months old rats and the results obtained. Their nuclear protein levels in the cortex and the medulla were then compared in relation to their ages. The results showed that there was an increase in the nuclear proteins of both the medulla and the cortex with the increasing age of rats. The findings will then be considered as abnormal due to different reasons. These include
Inappropriate volumes might have been used or there was poor evaluation of the results in the laboratory. High concentration of solution such as NaCL increases the amount of proteins in the medulla. The content of proteins in rat’s medulla can be high due to osmosis
Future research:
The study should include also try to determine the effects of other factors such as oxygen tension and urea level. This study should develop an argument about the role of nuclear protein in cortex and medulla of old kidney. Further studies are needed to reveal the important of total and individual nuclear proteins in different zones of the old kidney. The study should be carried out on different parts of the kidney since the protein levels differs in various parts due to different on size of renal collecting tubes proliferation.
Ashton, Q. (2012). Issues in life sciences: Cellular biology: 2011 edition. ScholarlyEditions.
Chi, ,. N. (2010). Coordination of the molecular events for nuclear protein import by the nuclear import factor. Northwestern University.
Kachirskaia, I. (2008). Lysine methylation of nuclear proteins: Discovery of novel methylation sites and effectors. Stanford University.
Laks, M. S. (2011). Modulation of nuclear protein kinase activity and phosphorylative modification of histone H1 subspecies during the prereplicative phase of rat liver regeneration. Northwestern University.
Martha, J. (2007). Issues in general science and scientific theory and method. ScholarlyEditions.
Rothman, S. (2008). Membrane protein transport. Elsevier.
Steve, J. (2012). Issues in clinical medicine research and practice. ScholarlyEditions. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“: Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney Research Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(: Is There a Decrease in the Total Nuclear Protein Levels in Kidney Research Paper)
“: Is There a Decrease in the Total Nuclear Protein Levels in Kidney Research Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF : Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats

Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure an abundance of inflammatory cell infiltrates, increase in interstitial fibroblasts, and presence of myofibroblasts. The increase in number of fibroblasts is critical in the development of the disease as these cells are the major ECM-producing cells in tubulointerstitium. Specifically, ECM accumulation is caused by increased production and decreased turnover of matrix proteins by fibroblasts and proximal tubular epithelial cells. On the other hand, tubular atrophy is caused by apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. In summary, the development of fibrosis is associated with increased levels of proinflammatory, vasoconstrictive and profibrotic factors (Fine and...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Kidney Transplantation

...of the immediate family also increases. (Torpey, 2010). Survival Rate and Immunology The survival rates for patients who have received renal transplant are superior to the patients receiving dialysis. The major reason is the fact that dialysis does not compensate normal kidney functions. The survival rates in UK for transplant versus dialysis are 87% and 30% respectively. (Torpey, 2010). One of the major barriers which limit the success of renal transplantation is the body’s immune system. Tissue rejection occurs when transplanted organ is recognized as foreign and stimulates adaptive immune response. Except in syngeneic graft, the difference in genes and proteins gives rise to antibodies because they...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Kidney Stones

..., obesity, dehydration, diets high in protein or sodium, and other digestive diseases. Since there are different ways for an individual to form kidney stones, different types of kidney stones have been recognized. Calcium stones form as a result of too much calcium oxalate in the body. This substance is common in many food products and is created regularly by the liver, making calcium stones the most common type of kidney stone (McAninch, 2013). Struvite stones form as the result of an infection in the urinary tract, and tend to be among the largest of kidney stones. Uric acid stones form as a result of an individual not drinking enough fluids or else...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Do high protein diets increase the risk of kidney stones

...indicated a decrease in urine pH, urinary citrate levels and an increase in net acid excretion and urinary calcium levels, showing a positive correlation between high protein consumption and risk for kidney stone disease. The above mentioned study confirmed that dietary pattern and urinary risk factors for stone formation were closely linked together. For reduction in the occurrence of kidney stone formation incorporating healthy dietary and lifestyle habits like adequate 'dietary' calcium intake, reduction in animal protein intake, salt intake reduction, increase in fruit and vegetable intake and increased fluid...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Kidney Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation

..."A Comparison of Kidney Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation" INTRODUCTION Kidney failure is one of the most common and most lethal type of organ failure. The kidneys, a pair of bean-shaped organs acts as filters for blood and other body fluids. Without the kidneys, the body will succumb to the toxins it encounters everyday. Toxins filtered by the kidneys are excreted out of the body through the urinary system mixed with urine. Toxins and other harmful substances, come from various sources such as the environment (in the air, water and other environmental factors), from our food especially those laced with high amounts of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Protein the order the protein and amino acids are supposed to be assembled. The process starts when “Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary transcript) using various forms of post-transcriptional modification to form the mature mRNA, which is then used as a template for protein synthesis by the ribosome. In prokaryotes the mRNA may either be used as soon as it is produced, or be bound by a ribosome after having moved away from the nucleotide. In contrast, eukaryotes make mRNA in the cell nucleus and then translocate it across the nuclear...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay


...of LF under neutral conditions causes denaturation of the protein (Tomita et al., 2002). Lactoferricin is produced by pepsin digestion of LF. The hydrolysate obtained is purified by cation-exchange chromatography as described earlier for LF. Reverse phase-HPLC is a suitable method using which lactoferrin has been purified (>90%) and quantitated at levels as low as 0.2 μg (Palmano and Elgar, 2002). Materials and Methods Digestion of Lactoferrin: 15g lactoferrin were dissolved in 300mL distilled water to obtain a 5% (w/v) solution. The solution was adjusted to pH 2.5 with 1M HCl, that being the optimum pH for enzyme (pepsin) activity (Saito et al., 1991). 0.45g of Sigma porcine pepsin was...
25 Pages(6250 words)Research Paper

Kidney trafficking

...Kidney Trafficking Kidney Trafficking Introduction Human Trafficking has been referred to by many as a variety of modern day slavery. It is an activity that affects people from all parts of the world. Human trafficking may comprise of exploiting other human beings through sexual means, by forcing them into servitude, or through the use of their internal organs. Some years ago, the United Nation’s division of Drugs and Crime made the observation that only the sale of drugs is more lucrative than engaging in human trafficking. The type of trafficking that garners the greatest profits at present has to do with the sale of organs. In many of the wealthier nations of the world, there are increasing numbers of...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay


...and absorption of proteins is complex as various enzymes are involved in manufacturing of the end-products of proteins. Stomach is the major part of the gastrointestinal tract where protein digestion occurs. Acidity of the stomach allows activation of pepsin and denaturing of proteins which involves uncoiling. Further digestion occurs in the small intestine in the presence of proteolytic enzymes which form amino acids. Absorbed form of proteins are amino acids. Q 4. What are detrimental effects of consuming too many amino acid supplements? The main harmful effect of amino acid supplementation is that it may hinder and decrease the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Increase of the Reduced Glutathione Level in Kidneys of Old Rats

.... Scholars show a correlation between garlic intakes and GSH level (Ahmad & Ahmed, 2006). Nevertheless, I did not find a study linking the intake of garlic with nuclear level of GSH in the kidney of old rats. Furthermore, which compounds among the organo-sulfur of garlic have the most significant effect on the GSH level? In this regard, this study is going to determine whether Organosulfur Diallyll Trisulfide (DATs) of garlic increases the Glutathione level (GSH) in kidneys of old rats. This study hypothesizes that organo-sulfur, Diallyll Trisulfide...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic : Is there a decrease in the total nuclear protein levels in kidney cortex and medulla in old rats for FREE!

Contact Us