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PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology - Assignment Example

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Chapter eleven discusses four theories of personality and concludes by the relationship between nature, nurture and personality before describing personality assessment. The first theory discussed is Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis in which Freud views personality from three…
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PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology
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Brief summary of Chapter 11: Personality Theory Chapter eleven discusses four theories of personality andconcludes by the relationship between nature, nurture and personality before describing personality assessment. The first theory discussed is Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis in which Freud views personality from three main awareness levels namely; the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious (Ellen et al.: slide 3-15). The roles of id, the ego and the superego are outlines followed by Freud’s conceptualization of personality through psychosexual stages and their significance to personality.
The humanistic theories are also discussed in the chapter (Ellen et al.: slides 16-18), and these theories are presented as more humanistic than Freud’s theories. In this case, Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is outlined. The chapter analysis that under these theories, although parents set up conditions for their children, there is a person centered therapy where people are taught to live by their own values. Moreover, the chapter discusses trait theories (Ellen et al.: slides 19-23) and the way they explain personality and differences among people with regard to personal characteristics that consider situations. It explores some ideas proposed by early trait theorists. The chapter concludes the topic by listing five factors that were considered by trait theorists as most significant in personality.
The chapter also discusses cognitive theories (Ellen et al.: slides 24-27) where the situation trait debate is analyzed. The components of Bandura’s reciprocal determinism model are discussed, in addition to the locus of control and what it contributes to personality. Lastly (slides 28-38), the nature, nurture and personality are discussed and the way personality differs across culture. The chapter concludes by discussing personality assessment methods, the rating scales and tests. In this light, chapter eleven highlights the projection of the result’s insight to personality.
Brief summary of Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders
Chapter twelve discusses psychological disorders including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other psychological disorders. The chapter starts by defining psychological disorder (Ellen et al.: slide 2-8) as mental processes or behavioral pattern that leads to emotional distress and finally impairs the mental functioning of an individual. The criteria to be used to determine abnormal behavior are discussed with the inclusion of DSM-IV-TR, which is used by clinicians. The ways of preventing psychological disorders and the theoretical approaches used to explain the causes of psychological disorders are also outlined.
The chapter then evaluates the anxiety disorder (Ellen et al.: 9-13) and its characteristics, especially the panic and agoraphobia attacks. This is followed by a brief explanation of four common symptoms of anxiety disorder and how they differ. The thoughts and behavioral patterns associated with obsessive disorder; where a person suffers from recurrent obsessions is explained. Another psychological disorder discussed is mood disorder (Ellen et al.: slides 14-21). Mood disorders are characterized by extreme and unwanted emotional disturbances. The symptoms of major mood depressive disorders and extremes of mood suffered by those with bipolar disorders are well outlined, in addition to the risk factors for mood disorders. The risk factors associated with suicide from the perspective of race, gender, and age of an individual are also mentioned.
Another psychological disorder discussed is schizophrenia, a severe psychological disorder where an individual loses contact with reality, suffers hallucinations, delusions and other bizarre behavioral patterns (Ellen et al.: slides 22-29). The positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, the four types of schizophrenia and the factors that increase the risk of developing schizophrenia are outlined and explained. Finally, the chapter mentions other psychological disorders such as dissociative and sexual personality disorders (Ellen et al.: slides 30-32). The two somatoform disorders, their shared symptoms and the way various dissociate disorders affect behavior concludes chapter twelve.

Works Cited
Ellen, Green W., Samuel E. Wood & Boyd Dennis. Mastering the World of Psychology. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2008. Print. Read More
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