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Ventilation-Perfusion - Assignment Example

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Metabolism is essential in maintenance of proper bodily functions such as circulation, respiration, cellular reproduction, and tissue repair. Individuals with the intention of weight loss mainly focus…
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Ventilation-Perfusion
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Ventilation-Perfusion Metabolic rate plays a significant role to individual trying to loose weight. Metabolism is essential in maintenance of proper bodily functions such as circulation, respiration, cellular reproduction, and tissue repair. Individuals with the intention of weight loss mainly focus on boosting their metabolic rates (Connolly et al 196-201). Resting metabolic rate for an average person account for a large percentage of the total daily energy uses (Connolly et al 196-201). This is a key determinant of energy balance and weight change. Decreased resting metabolic rate is a challenge to weight management. Several factors affect resting metabolic rate and some include body mass, body composition, age, gender amongst others. For example, men usually demonstrate a higher absolute resting metabolic rate as compared to women (Connolly et al 196-201). When one is active, the body burns more calories than during rest. Various levels of physical activity such as walking, swimming decrease body weight by burning calories. Such activities also increase Basal Metabolic rates by building extra lean tissue (Connolly et al 196-201). On the other hand, maximum level of activity increases the metabolic rate and hence leads to proper maintenance of body weight.
During rest, the alveolar change is minimal. However, during active or highly active period such as exercise and other conditions, alveolar pressure changes are high. Such a person is said to be on positive pressure ventilation. This may lead to a situation where alveolar pressure exceeds vascular pressure, and this may be detrimental to the flow of blood (Osborne 2). Usually, pulmonary pressure is high during exercise to avoid any hindrance that may occur to the blood flow (Osborne 3). Alveolar partial pressure of oxygen is a function of the ratio of ventilation to perfusion (Osborne 3). In a normal situation, the blood in the pulmonary capillaries equilibrates with alveolar oxygen pressure and carbon dioxide pressure (Osborne 4). The great ventilation and perfusion at the base of the lung allows greater gas exchange at the base of the lungs (Osborne 4). Therefore, such an arrangement allows adequate gas exchange, unless a disease occurs to disrupt it (Osborne 4). On the other hand, if regional hypoxia occurs that leads to reduced oxygenation of alveolus, local pulmonary vasoconstriction takes precedence (Osborne 4). The supply of blood to less oxygenated alveolus is reduced and directed to areas with an adequate supply of oxygen.
These rates are able to maintain sufficient saturation of the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. This is because if the pressure of oxygen increases, the saturation goes up and hemoglobin stores excess oxygen (“The Respiratory System Part 2” Web). Hemoglobin is able to compensate for low pressure of oxygen (“The Respiratory System Part 2” Web). For example, active tissues consumes large amount of oxygen. This causes saturation of hemoglobin going through such sites to drop significantly (“The Respiratory System Part 2” Web).
A decrease in Dead Space means that the alveolar pressure will be low as compared to arterial pressure (Leach and Treacher 3). This will cause oxygen delivery to tissues to increase significantly. Several factors can affect oxygen delivery to tissues and include rate of oxygen delivery to the capillary, oygen-heaemoglobin breakdown, capillary size, diffusion rate, and rate of oxygen use by the cells (Leach and Treacher 3).
Works Cited
“The Respiratory System Part 2”. miami.edu. Web 27 November, 2012. < http://www.as.miami.edu/chemistry/2086/chap23/the%20respiratory%20system%20part%202.htm > Connolly, Josephine, Romano, Theresa and Patruno, Marisa. “Effects Of Dieting And Exercise On Resting Metabolic Rate And Implications For Weight Management.” Oxford Journals, (1998): 196-201. Print
Leach, R and Treacher, D. “Oxygen Transport.” Clinical review, 317.14 (1998): 1-4. Print
Osborne, Sally. “Ventilation Perfusion Relationships.” Sallyosborne.com. Web 27 November 2012. < http://www.sallyosborne.com/Med%20Lecture%20-%20Ventilation%20Perfusion%20Relationships%202007.pdf >Read More
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