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History and Philosophy Science - Book Report/Review Example

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He states that other creative fields exhibit some sort of progress. An example is the theologian who expresses dogma or the philosopher who makes the Kantian imperatives refined contributes to development, if only…
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History and Philosophy Science
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Download file to see previous pages It is because there are always competing schools that normally questions the very foundations of the rest.
An individual with an argument that philosophy has made no progress has emphasis on the fact that there are still Aristotelians and not that Aristotelianism has failed to advance. Kuhn further illustrates that in music, the graphic arts, and literature, the practitioner gets his education by contact with the works of other artists, mainly earlier artists (Kuhn 1962). He explains that textbooks, except compendia or handbooks of original creations give only a secondary role. In philosophy, history, and the social sciences, textbook literature has a superior implication. In these fields, the basic college course uses parallel readings in original sources, some being the “classics” of the field, others the contemporary research reports written by practitioners for each other. This results in the student in any one of these disciplines to be constantly made aware of the immense range of problems that will be experienced by the members of his future group with time. More important, he has continually before him a range of competing and incommensurable keys to these problems, solutions that he has to ultimately assess for himself.
Are crises an essential prerequisite for the emergence of new theories? How do scientists respond to their existence? According to Kuhn, part of the answer can be discovered by taking note first what scientists never do when faced with even severe and prolonged abnormalities (Kuhn 1962). Although they may begin to give up and then to consider options, they do not renounce the paradigm that led them into crisis. They do not treat anomalies as counter-instances, even though in the language of science philosophy, that is what they are. Partly, this generalization is a simple statement from historic fact that is based upon examples like those above. He ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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