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# Correlation and Association - Research Paper Example

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According to Willnat, Manheim and Rich (2011), coefficient of association “is a number that summarizes the amount of improvement in guessing values on…

## Extract of sample "Correlation and Association"

Correlation and Association Correlation and Association In statistical analysis, association and correlation coefficients are used in examining relationships between two variables. According to Willnat, Manheim and Rich (2011), coefficient of association “is a number that summarizes the amount of improvement in guessing values on one variable for any case based on knowledge of the values of a second.” The values are estimated using a proportionate reduction in error. This means that the prediction in a statistical data is more accurate when the association between two variables is great. The coefficient of association also uses the direction of relationships, whether positive or negative, to effectively guess the values.
On the other hand, the correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of a relationship by utilizing the geometric relationship of the dependent variable Y with the independent variable X. It is defined as “the measure of association between two interval variables” (Willnat, Manheim and Rich, 2011), also known as the Pearson product-moment correlation. This coefficient predicts the values of Y according to that of the corresponding values of X. Because of its higher accuracy and efficiency in predicting values of association between variables, the correlation coefficient is still reliable even when the samples to be used in the test vary in size.
Since the coefficient of association relies mainly on a specific sample size on guessing the measure of association instead of the whole population, the test for statistical significance is stronger using the correlation coefficient. The latter can accurately predict the association between variables based on any subgroups of a population, hence making it a reliable tool in any given statistical data scenario.
Reference
Brians, C.L., Willnat, L., Manheim, J., & Rich, R. (2011). Empirical political analysis:
Quantitative and qualitative research methods (8th ed.). Upper
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