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Public Relations is known to beone of the most effective means of communicating or promoting all the positive aspects of an individual, group of persons, organization or businesses that seek public attention (Grunig and Hunt 1984, p.6). As early as the 20th century, public…
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Table of contents page
1. Introduction 4
2. Literature review 6
2.1. Introduction 6
2.2. Public Relations and its development. 8
2.3. Public Relations versus Utilities 8
2.4. The Process 9
2.5. Public relations- how is it done? 9
2.5.1. Media 10
2.5.2. Modern Methods 10
2.6. Importance of Public Relations- why should we do it? 11
2.7. Can Its Effectiveness Be Seen? 12
3. Research Methodology 13
3.1. Introduction 13
3.2. Research Strategy 13
3.3. Research Approach 14
4. Research findings and Discussion 14
4.1. Situation of Public Relations in Qatar 14
4.2. The Future of Public Relations and Winning Mondale 2022 15
5. Conclusions 17
6. Recommendations 19
7. Appendix 22
List of tables
Table 1 showing four models of public relations---------------------------------------------11
1. Introduction
Public Relations is known to beone of the most effective means of communicating or promoting all the positive aspects of an individual, group of persons, organization or businesses that seek public attention (Grunig and Hunt 1984, p.6). As early as the 20th century, public relations was appreciated by Greeks and Egyptians who used it as a one way communication. Today, public relations is seen as a two way communication between the company’s client and the public on which it depends. Its main aim is to make sure that the clients gain public understanding and acceptance. Public relations deals with people, organizations and companies. Public relations includes activities like giving holding press conferences, speaking in various fora and communicating with employees in the company. The role of public relations is to create awareness and a positive public image (Rubel 2007, p10). Public relations helps in deciding what information will reach the employees, and how it will reach them so that the company’s image is maintained.
Stockholders, potential investors and other interested people would be interested in a company’s financial information all of which is availed by public relations. Crises such as bankruptcy and product failures in any business are communicated using the same means. It is in the interest of public relations to make sure that the community is aware of anything going on around them and how it will affect them. It is quite clear that this is the epitome of awareness and communication in any field.
It has been seen that public relations companies in Qatar use the available utilities in order to win Mondale 2022. There are many ways with which this is done among them press releases, blogs and media. The most modern means of doing this include the use of the four models of public relations suggested by James Grunig.
At this point however, it should be noted that the perception of public relations in Qatar is very different from that applied in other countries. Before any operations are done in this field, companies have the role of understanding the way people view public relations as a whole. Because the targeted population in most cases is not a single entity or tribe, it is important to put all their needs together. This is one of the factors that make public relations a very complicated sector in this growing economy.
Qatar is a conservative country whose economic growth is described as astounding with one of the highest growing gross domestic products (GDP) in the world. In 2010, the country’s GDP stood at around $30000. Lately, the public relations concepts are used to approach utilities to win Mondale 2022.
This paper will look at how public relations have approached utilities in Qatar in order to win Mondale 2022. Particularly, the paper will explore the history of public relations, its growth to what it is now and the methods used to achieving this aim. In addition to this, an understanding of the crucial role of public relations in winning Mondale 2022 will be clearly explained. In summary, this paper will look at:
I. How public relations approach utilities in Qatar in order to win Mondale 2022.
II. The history and development of this discipline.
III. Challenges faced by this industry in Qatar.
IV. The traditional methods used by this industry.
V. Why the media in Qatar is not used so much in doing public relations.
VI. The modern methods used by public relations.
VII. Recommendations that can effectively improve the above.
2. Literature Review and Literature
2.1. Introduction
With the increase in the importance of public relations in the world today, thousands of articles have been published about the subject. This part of the paper explores the different literatures and gives a comprehensive cover of how public relations companies approach the their tasks. To understand this better, we will look at the growth and importance of public relations in Middle East and also in Qatar. The company applies the traditional and modern methods to attain their two way communication, which will also be explored in this literature review.
Apparently, public relations is a concept that first developed in the Middle East but was not taken positively. The very first public relations was done by Egyptians and Greeks but it developed at a very slow rate. This was attributed to unfamiliarity with the concept, non-dependent media, diverse culture and the lack of many organizations and managers to see the need for it. In Qatar, the issue was no different, and part of the blame was attributed to the recent acquisition of independence, brainwash and the balance between religion, development and political instability. In their book, Alan and Ashli (2008, p. 181) explain that factors like the diverse cultures, varying government structures, financial factors and the degree of freedom affect the conception, roles and objectives of public relations in Qatar and neighboring countries.
As mentioned above, using media is one of the most effective ways of doing public relations. The growth of this company has greatly been hampered by its operation within authoritarian effect in the press and media industry as per the laws of that country. Media content is highly regulated by both internal and foreign interferences. What reaches the public, how it is presented, and the amount of information given to the public by the media is decided on by quality control officers. The media was thus not the most used means of doing public relations. Most Arab countries including those in the Middle East and North Africa have the strong sense to preserve their strong Muslim culture which is threatened by globalization. There was also lack of expertise in many fields including that of public relations. When those services were needed, it was almost impossible to get them, and countries had to import the services from elsewhere. Thus, relationships with other countries were at first difficult to forge. The situation changed with the introduction of the much needed Confederation of Public Relations Association of Islamic Countries (CPRAIC) in 2006. CPRAIC has the main role of supporting research in public relations, and at the same time ensuring that public relations of that country reflect traditional and Islamic values of the indigenous people. This was a major point in the development of this company.
Despite these developments, public relations are still seen as a one way communication in some countries. Mostly, public relations are applied when it comes to handling administrative tasks and event planning but not when making policies. This is due to the authoritarian effect still applied in most social aspects. Maria James and Paul (2010, p.15) note that there was initially a problem in the development of education in public relations but many schools and colleges in these countries have now come up with training centers in the same. This, together with the increase in communication means not to mention the infusion of information technology, increase in democracy and a more educated and liberal nation has led to the development of public relations to what it is to date. Major developments in the company are quite evident according to many analysts.
2.3. Public Relations and its Development.
A more social way of doing public relations has been in existent in most countries in the Middle East for a long time. This includes the use of social groups such as women groups. Information can come from a basic source but end up reaching thousands of people in a single day. For instance; taxi drivers due to their movement from one area to another gain information, pass it to the customer who the passes it to other people. This is one of the most traditional ways but social media like face-book works more effectively lately. According to Alan and Ashli (2009, p.171), there are many tools used by public relation companies. Despite the fact that they are used with a lot of caution due to the country’s laws, they are diverse ranging from media, press and more lately, internet and publicity stunts. Victoria and Joy (2009, p.20) state that there are major differences in how public relation companies approach utilities in Qatar and how it is done in the other countries. For instance; the caution applied in Qatar when using communication media is in such a way that it looks like a warning more than a two way communication.
Van Leuven came up with four theories to explain the development of public relations and one of them is;
“The more urban the society and the more developed its communication infrastructure, the greater the use of media for public communication campaigns. The converse, they say, holds as well, adding that rural, dispersed societies will employ campaigns incorporating interpersonal communication strategies along with field agents.” (Alan & Ashli’s 2009, p.50)
This could offer a summary of how public relations developed and are still developing in most countries today.
2.4. Public Relations versus Utilities
Qatar is a small country but has a lot of utilities it can use for its public relations. It should be understood that the spurt in economic growth in Qatar, is mainly due to oil and abundance of natural gas. These are among the very first utilities to be approached by public relations industry to attract foreign investors. In their book, Krishnamurthy and Vercic (2009) explain that the media in suffers from lack of independence in most countries and especially so in Qatar. This was not just from within but also censorship from foreign powers. Thus, the media was seen as a one way communication. The same public relations faced similar problems until recent revolutions. Even though it can be looked at as a form of utility, public relations needed to intervene and introduced interpersonal communication through social media through which information and education is transmitted.
The growth of infrastructure in this region is due to oil and natural gas. This led to development of infrastructure such as roads and buildings. Of course, with the increase in such infrastructure, there is a lot of potential for business in any such country. This propelled the growth of public relations because it was seen as an opportunity for development. This was not just for internal communication but also for external public.
Before foreign owned business escalated, most businesses were family owned. So the economic situation then was more of small industries. Each family could have a reputation according to the business they run. A good reputation and relationship with ones community was therefore very important. In case a crisis occurred, it was handled using a traditional way of public relations by using social functions such as weddings or funerals. This ensured economic development. Approach to utilities can be seen in all the ways above and recently, Qatar is using utilities such as infrastructure, communication sector, environment and availability of other subsidiary services like banks, stadiums and even the availability of water.
2.5. The Process
Before embarking on any publicity stunt, there are processes involved in order to convey the right message to the right population. Robert, Elizabeth and Damion (2009, p78) says in his book that communication during public relations involves first, identifying the target. This helps the public relations officer know how to contact the client. Strategy will depend on questions such as; is the public new to the issue being addressed? How much of the product or service is used? What image is to be created? How long is the image expected to last?
The second step is the determination of communication objective. Here, the work of public relations is to help the public see how the product, issue at hand, service or policy will help them in satisfying a need they have. For example in our context, the officers should identify what they have that the Mondale 2022 needs. They present their assets in such a way that it depicts how it will help satisfy a need.
Since public relations have the intention of attracting attention, the process of designing an effective message is the next step. This is a precarious step keeping in mind the some laws are oppressive when it comes to whatever message reaches the public. In addition to this, the message has to be in a way that Muslim culture and the culture of the indigenous people is maintained. The needs of the targeted public are also kept in mind, for instance; morals appeals and moral appeals. The format for example in print should be boldly written. For example, using a stadium as a utility, large printed message and visual presentation of the stadium is a way of creating awareness of its existence. This ensures that those who do not want to read the message can visually see what issue is being presented to them.
The next step is determination of the media by which the message will be conveyed. The most methods include media like newspaper, radio, national and international television. However, most messages before going to the public pass through government quality control officers. Different people attribute their use of a product or service depending on the media with which it was relayed. Studies done on the male some populations showed that, one out of five men prefers reading the message on the newspaper than listening to it on the radio.
For purposes of improvement and to know if the message was effective, feedback is required and this is the next step. This helps in suggesting ways to either improve or completely change whatever is on offer. If the offer does not offer satisfaction, then the public will not be interested. This is a very important step and it can help during personal auditing of public relations.
2.6. Public relations- how is it done?
Alan and Ashli confirm that before the concept of any public relation is introduced research should be done. They say
“formulation of public relations concept, even normalized ideal ones, cannot be transferred automatically across cultures without first counting for levels of societal development, whether public relations is regarded as a relationship building process or a communication campaign.” (Alan and Ashli 2009, p.54)
Therefore, both integrative and systematic research has been done on public relations. Here, we will see how public relations companies approach utilities in Qatar with an aim of winning Mondale 2022.
2.6.1. Media
This is one of the most used methods of public relations. However, the media does not operate the same way in all countries. In some places, media is controlled by authoritarian rule. In this rule, not everyone has access to media, the content allowed in the media is also controlled and some audiences do not pay attention to media. This has made media unsuitable when it comes to public relations.
2.6.2. Modern Methods
Modern ways have been used by public relation companies to achieve this aim. In their book, Maria et al. (2010, p.74) said that one of the approaches is through the application of the four models of public relations practice developed by James Grunig. The first model is known as the Press Agentry Model. This is a one way communication where there is application of persuasion and manipulation. This has been used almost successfully in Qatar and is being applied in winning Mondale 2022. Press agents are used for purposes of giving notice to the public. Many veterans in this field argue about this being known as public relations due to the use of press agents. In the Middle East, it is not uncommon that most sports persons are used in this way especially in the campaigns of winning Mondale 2022.
The next model is known as the Public Information Model. Another one way communication but here press releases, brochures and web contents are used. A good example here is clips giving information about all the positive aspects of Qatar are shown in international channels like CNN. Journalists in residence are used in place of press agents. Government public relations agents commonly use this method to dispense information.
The third model is known as the Two-way Asymmetric model. The targeted public is made to agree to an organization’s policies or way of doing things. This is done in a more social way by incorporating feedback. Research is thus done before and after going to the public in a more scientific way. Another communication model is the Two-Way Symmetric model. The organization or individual interested is made to change or adjust their policies according to the public wishes. Both methods of two way communication are currently being used by government agencies to win Mondale 2022.
Table 1; showing four models of public relations
Model name
Type of communication
Press agentry
One way
Persuasion and manipulation
Journalist in residence
One way
Press releases and public practitioner
One way
Persuasion and manipulation
Two way
Understanding and respect
2.7. Importance of Public Relations- why should we do it?
A famous saying goes that people do not plan to fail but fail to plan. Apparently, the same applies for those organizations that fail to plan on having public relations (Brian & Deidre 2009, p.14). CPRAIC agrees with the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) that currently no one can do without public relations.
One of the reasons for doing public relations is that it offers a clear picture of what is going on in an organization or business and give the best picture of the scenario. Nevertheless, what is the reason for developing a positive image? We live in a developing world and every leader in any country would not want to be left behind. The public is the reason behind any development done; development is made by people and is needed by people. Therefore, the public needs to have a positive perception of an issue and this is where public relations play a significant role. Qatar needs this kind of communication to present to the world what utilities they have in order to win Mondale 2022.
The increased infusion of information through social media is enabling people to be more updated in terms of their rights. Thus there is need for the public relation industry to present their information after meticulously studying it.
2.8. Can Its Effectiveness Be Seen?
The growth of public relations has been likened to the development of the World Wide Web that was once seen as impossibility. Measuring the progress of public relations is done using different means applied in all countries; legal system, economic development, democracy and level of activism. In most countries in the Middle East, economic development has been attributed to public relations. Availability of oil led to development of infrastructure in most countries in the Middle East. There was however no means by which other people could come to learn of this goldmine and that is how public relations came in. It is therefore evident that public relations are important.
Research Methodology
3.1. Introduction
The main issue in this paper is how Qatari based public relations industries approach utilities to win the Mondale 2022. The number, size and clients of public relations industries have been increasing at a very fast rate over the past couple of years. Different research tools were considered in the process of conducting research because both secondary and primary information was needed. First, consideration was given to published academic reports about public relations and especially that in Qatar. Secondly, the utilities available in Qatar that are used by public relations were critically studied to yield information on how they were used. This was particularly helpful when collecting mostly qualitative and quantitative primary data. Sampling was done randomly to save on time and other resources. No written questionnaires were applied in this study as face to face interviews were found to be more effective (Heath et al. 2008, p.122).
The literature reviewed in this paper was mostly about public relations, its history, problems and applications in Qatar. Many of these publications give the overview of public relations in Qatar and the main methods of public relations in Qatar. The articles also give an explanation of how Qatari based public relations companies use the available utilities. In this context, the articles look at how different public relation is viewed in Middle East at large as compared to other countries.
3.2. Research Strategy
In order to fulfill the purpose of this research, several tools were applied. Out of the various methods suggested by (Donald, Samuel, Larry & Jerry 2010, p.17), three methods were applied. The first method is known as the PR audit which is a loosely structured research tool involved in measuring how effective the process of public relations has been. This may also be referred to as labor under observation.
The second tool was through communication audits where we asked ourselves the questions, how well is PR communicating to the public? Do the public relation companies follow the right stages during communications? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the communication channel?
The other tool used was using social audits where social issues such as participation in volunteering and charity activities. Not only are public relations clients expected to deliver value, participation in some social activity goes a long way in doing personal public relations. This tool gave us qualitative data, most social activities were done during religious festivals.
Quantitative data was obtained from communication and media audits. Primary and secondary data was also used. We were able to do a face to face interview with some of the public on their understanding of public relations, the utilities and winning Mondale 2022.
3.3. Research Approach
Various factors were considered during this study among them;
Qatar, though a small country, it is characterized by one of the greatest growing economies with petroleum being the cornerstone of this superb economy. Lately a lot of developments have been made in the sports industry where Qatar has been winning in athletics and there are proposals to host the mundane 2022.
The media service in the country has restrictions from within and outside the country. It is thus the work of public relation companies to present an image bearing in mind the Muslim culture of the country.
Indigenous cultures are considered when doing public relations in Qatar.
There are various methods used by Qatari based public relations industry. Apart from the traditional media and press releases, the uses of the four models first suggested by James Grunig in 1984 are now being applied because they are more effective.
Qatar is now trying to use the available utilities so they can win Mondale 2022. Public relations sector has ways of approaching utilities to achieve this aim.
4. Research Findings and Discussion.
Empirical evidence is not that scarce on development of public relation in Qatar. Most authors on journals on public relations find a positive relationship between development and public relations in Qatar. With respect to face to face communications with most people, it is still seen to have the same effect. Studies of past information on the subject were important when tracing the history of public relations especially in Qatar. Interviews with both the public and people involved in public relations was mandatory for better understanding of operations of this industry in Qatar. Surveys yielded information about the placements and qualitative information about the industry.
VII.1. Situation of Public Relations in Qatar
After deep investigation of literature available, it is with a lot of conviction I agree with the various authors that public relations is a field that still needs a lot of work in Qatar. It is really weird that public relations have its roots in Egypt found in the same area as Qatar. According to one of the foreign investors there, the company could be doing much better. Among the constraints faced by this industry is the culture and lack of independence. Most of the public relation industries are owned by foreign investors. A good example is Maraya Company that deals majorly with home exhibitions. Some of the locals see this as a way with which there is interference by foreigners.
The media which is among the most traditional way of doing public relations has been dealt the same fate. Interference both political and business based has negatively affected this industry leading to its lagging behind. Public relations companies had to invent other ways of doing their work and thus the introduction of the famous four models by James Grunig. Despite all this, just like a famous public relations practitioner predicted, this company has grown and is one of the reasons of the great escalation in economic development. Sriramesh and Vercic (2009, p.76) suggested that four components of a country can tell you a lot about its public relations industry; political system, economic development, legal system and level of activism.
Being part of a large area and having to borrow expertise from other countries, there are a lot of cultures that public relations in Qatar had to represent.
VII.2. The Future of Public Relations and Winning Mondale 2022.
There is obviously infusion of a lot of new cultures and information from the working public from foreign countries. It is obvious that companies are going global, and this has helped the public relations industry grow. Non- native people make up almost 75% of Qatar population according to a recent census. This then means that the country is experiencing cultural diversity. This presents a challenge to the public relations industry due to the attempt of presenting a global image, and at the same time adapt to the other cultures. This adaptation goes a long way to even personal things like fashion and food.
Still circling on multiculturalism, there is also the issue of how the education system on public relations will have to change. The education has to be in such a way that at the end of it all, the students who are the products of such training have the capability of responding to multiculturalism. Whether this could go to the extent of learning foreign languages we do not know. The same attitude should be used by public relations if they have an intention of winning Mondale 2022.
5. Conclusion
After critical study of the research, one will realize that public relations are very important company when it comes to economic development of any nation. It is the major way with which one way or two way communication for any public figure or organization can present itself to the public in a positive way. This is the situation in Qatar and its success can be seen in the country.
While this is happening, there are various challenges facing this company in Qatar. To mention but a few is the issue of the lack of independence in the media due to internal and foreign interferences and secondly is the fact of preservation of indigenous culture in a multi culture society. According to various analysts, if the two factors would have not been there, with the rate of growth of the industry, then Qatar should have been way far in their public relations.
The view of public relations in Qatar is not the same as in other countries. Therefore, public relations companies embark in serious research before doing any work. Before it became a serious industry, it was looked at as unimportant. However, this view changed with the realization of utilities available in Qatar but no method of communicating it to other nations. The introduction of expertise from other countries led to the development of this industry.
At first, the media was the more traditional way of doing public relations. Due to the situation as it is, public relation officers realized that for the industry to succeed, new methods of doing public relations had to be adopted. This led to the use of models suggested by James Grunig. Public relations had to adopt other ways apart from the usual media and that included involving social interactions in their work.
The process of public relations in Qatar follows a specific procedure basically used by most companies even throughout the world. What is different in this case is the issue as to who the targeted person is and what image it will have on the very multi cultured society. This makes the process even more complicated because o the presentation.
Development of the public relations sector can be seen through the economic development, legal sector improvement and the ability of the public to express themselves. Any public relations officer interested in investing in this field uses the above actors to determine how far the industry has come and where it is going. In addition to this, most companies use this as a method of deciding whether to invest or not.
When it comes to approaching utilities to win Mondale 2022, the public relations industry uses mostly the highly developed infrastructure; this attracts foreign investors and expertise from outside and in turn economic development is inevitable. Though at first it seemed as a slow process, the availability of oil and gas also contributed to the improved economy. The industry uses some of these factors as utilities to attain this aim.
Public relations were previously confused with advertising, journalism and marketing by most Qataris. Though there are those factors and issues each borrows from the other, the concept that they are clearly different is now evident to most people. This was clear through the understanding of public relations more as advocates than as a means of making sales as advertising does. Also, the facts that public relations not only deal with businesses but its clients vary from individuals to even government organizations.
Qatar being part of the Middle East is just one of the countries whose economic development of the region is impressive to most investors. Therefore competition is at its highest and thus the need for public relations. With this realization, many companies have been able to succeed.
With all the challenges facing this industry in Qatar, it should be noted that the problems are not similar in all countries. In the same way, it is almost impossible to use the same methods of doing public relations in several countries.
6. Recommendations
The following recommendations should be put into consideration.
I. The worlds’ economic system is developing due to democracy and information technology. This means increased competition and communication. If Qatar has the intention of winning the Mondale 2022, a lot of resources should be invested in the industry. The practice of public relations should be advocated for all the countries that intend to win the Mondale 2022 (Seitel 2007, p.22).
II. To be able to do this more effectively, a lot of study needs to be done on the different cultures and preferences of people involved in Mondale 2022. Erica and Mashable (2010, p.16) asserts that languages should be managed for the proper conveyance of messages for purposes of public relations.
III. There is also the need to change the way teaching public relations is done because it is evident that Qatar is targeting a global market with different people and different cultures.
I. Qatar needs to lay back or revise some of its policies on the press and media as it has been shown that this is one of the most effective ways of doing public research.
Alan, R, & Ashli, Q., 2009, Global Public Relations: Spanning Borders, Spanning Cultures. Routledge Publishers, New York.
Brian, S., & Deirdre B., 2009, Putting the Public Back in Public Relations: How the Media is Reinventing the Aging Business of PR, Cengage Learning, New Jersey.
Donald, W. , Samuel, D., Larry, D. & Jerry, C., 2010, Advertising and Public Relations Research, ME Sharpe, New York.
Krishnamurthy, S. & Dejan, V., 2009, The Global Public Relations Handbook: Theory, Research and Practice, Cengage Learning, New York.
Maria, H., James, S. & Paul, K., 2010, Sport Public Relations and Communication, Butterworth-Heinemann, New York.
Robert, L., Elizabeth, L. & Damion, W., 2009, Rhetorical and Critical Approaches to Public Relations, Cengage Learning, New York.
Victoria, F. & Joy, F., 2009, Public Relations- Strategically Important, GRIN Verlag Publishers, New York:
Grunig, J. & Hunt, T., 1984, Managing Public Relations, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Orlando, FL.
Seitel, F., 2007, The Practice of Public Relations, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Erica S., 2010, .The Future of Public Relations and Social Media. Available [Accessed 1 August, 2012]Appendix
It would be very important to ask ourselves the following questions under the titles mentioned.
Current Situation
II. What is the condition of the public relations industry in Qatar right now?
Process of Public Relations
III. What is the process of doing public relations in Qatar?
IV. Do you think public relations industry is ready for the role of winning Mondale 2022?
V. How do you think public relations should approach this?
VI. Which is the most effective method of doing this?
VII. What do you think is the most useful utility that can be approached by the public relations industry in Qatar to win Mondale 2022?
VIII. What are the chances of winning Mondale 2022 by using public relations?
IX. What can be done differently by public relations to improve the industry and to win Mondale 2022?
Future of Public Relations
X. What is the future of public relations in Qatar?
XI. Why is the media considered as one of the most effective tools of doing public relations yet the case is different in Qatar? Read More
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