Public utilities re industries in which the right of specil public regultion hs become firmly recognized. It is not necessry to set forth complete list of the vrious industries embrced within the concept of public utilities. For the ske of definiteness, however, we my briefly stte tht the term includes stem rilrods; locl nd inter-urbn electric rilwys; gs nd electric corportions; wter nd stem compnies; telephone nd telegrph compnies…
Download file to see previous pages...
It is worth while t the outset to distinguish clerly between the specil control over public utilities nd the regultion of industries in generl. Under the police power, stte hs the right to regulte ny business. This sort of regultion hs to do with sfety devices, conditions of helth nd well being of employees, nd, with more or less defined limittions, the generl welfre of the public (King, 2000).
The regultion of public utilities, however, is of different sort ltogether. It embrces the right to control the very orgniztion nd conduct of the enterprise. It is concerned not only with sfety nd welfre, but with the rtes chrged the public nd the returns or profits relized by the business, s well s with the products or services furnished. In the so-clled unregulted business the right to such interference is not recognized. fter ll resonble provisions for the public welfre hve been mde, ordinry business is still free to furnish such services or products s it desires, chrge such prices or rtes s it is ble to exct, nd conduct its finncil mngement ccording to its own purposes or contrctul rrngements.
The right to regulte in the specil sense ws first recognized in the celebrted cse of Munn v. Illinois, decided by the Supreme Court of the United Sttes in 1876. This cse involved the right of the Illinois generl ssembly to prescribe mximum chrges for the storge nd hndling of grin by Chicgo elevtors. The new power ttempted by the stte ws rdicl deprture from existing policy. The ct ws shrply contested nd crried to the Supreme Court of the United Sttes. The power ws upheld, nd the bsis lid for public utility regultion. The principle itself hs never been questioned since.
bout the time when the Illinois wrehouse sttute ws encted, there ws widespred legisltion throughout the country, especilly through the newly developed western sttes, for the regultion of rilrods. This ws the period of so-clled Grnger legisltion, when lmost spontneously new sttutes for rilrod regultion were encted. Of the seven Grnger cses decided by the Supreme Court in 1876, ll but the Munn cse concerned rilrods. 1 Thus, ctive regultion t tht time chiefly centered round the rilrods. It finlly resulted in the pssge by Congress in 1887 of n ct to Regulte Commerce, or, s it is clled, the Interstte Commerce ct (Morgn, 2003).
During the 1880's serious problems developed lso in connection with other public utilities, prticulrly street rilwys. The rpid growth of cities creted demnd for dequte trnsporttion t resonble rtes. Similrly other services becme importnt, nd demnd for the extension of regultion developed. Consequently, fter 1900, the policy of regultion expnded rpidly, nd in the succeeding decde public utility sttutes with commissions were provided in most of the sttes.
The bsis of regultion, s estblished by the Munn decision, nd repeted in ll of the leding cses where the sme question rose, ws the specil public interest in the prticulr industries. It is worth inquiring into this specil interest. Wht re the prticulr qulities, or the extrordinry conditions, which set n enterprise prt from others not subject to regultion Wht constitutes the specil interest which trnsforms business into public utility
Vrious nswers hve been mde from time to time to these questions. In court opinions, sometimes one view is reflected,
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Regultion of Public Utilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/politics/1508901-regultion-of-public-utilities
(Regultion of Public Utilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words)
“Regultion of Public Utilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/politics/1508901-regultion-of-public-utilities.
Domestic utilities are the services provided to the residents. These services are either provided by the organizations run by the government or by the organizations that are privately run but they are regulated by government authorities. Services included in domestic utilities; provision of water, oil, gas and electricity.
8088 machines possessed 256 KB, 512 KB or 1 MB of RAM. 8088 was much cheaper than 8086.
The Intel 80386 was the first 32-bit CPU. The 386 have 32-bit long registers and a 32-bit data bus, both internally and externally. The 80386 SX became the most popular chip with a discount edition of the 386 DX.
Elements of value, the assets, either tangible or intangible, of a utility that when combined comprise the rate base. These elements can include buildings, resources, equipments, and the lands on which they work. (Phillips 316). Some intangible elements of value to the public utility might include the following: working capital or property reserved for future use, customer contributions and tax deferrals, and construction work in progress.
In order to understand the deeper concepts of public administration, it is first essential to understand the definition of the term. Rouse and Berkley (2003) tell us that the concept produced within the mind of an individual upon hearing the term 'public administration' may seem conceptual and ordinary at first glance.
It is worth while аt the outset to distinguish cleаrly between the speciаl control over public utilities аnd the regulаtion of industries in generаl. Under the police power, а stаte hаs the right to regulаte аny business. This sort of regulаtion hаs to do with sаfety devices, conditions of heаlth аnd well being of employees, аnd, with more or less defined limitаtions, the generаl welfаre of the public (King, 2000).
utilities simply means that the people will have to rely more on the private sector rather than the government when it comes to satisfying the basic needs of the local people.
Since the 1990s, the Australian Governments together with the Commonwealth and the State has decided
In the New York Hurricane Sandy, the magnitude of the disaster was clearly unexpected and thus could be described as a black swan event. Those businesses which did not have a mitigation strategy found it difficult to pick up from the disruption, thus highlighting the need to take disaster planning an essential part of any business.
The meaning of efficiency would be to allocate resources in such a way so that market does not fail. Therefore; we would consider two main types of efficiencies, the productive efficiency and the parreto efficiency. Productive efficiency occurs when the economy is