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Theories of Intelligence PS240 WK5 - Term Paper Example

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This field of research has raised many notions concerning on how an individual considers and unfolds his/her potential competency to think and act in certain ways…
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Theories of Intelligence One of the most intriguing and principal matters in psychology is the study of human intelligence. This field of research has raised many notions concerning on how an individual considers and unfolds his/her potential competency to think and act in certain ways (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009; Kaufman, 2011). However, there are various theories in explaining the idea of human intelligence, such as Spearman’s Two-factor Theory, Cattell’s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence, Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory, and Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence.
Charles Spearman’s two-factor theory served as the pioneering framework in using statistical procedures of investigating human intelligence. In his two-factor theory, Spearman considered a topmost and single general factor of intelligence (referred as “g”) that can be acquired when factorially analyzed the specific intellectual skills in a hierarchical order. Consequently, Spearman’s theory grew as a foundation in investigating human intelligence through empirical studies (Williams, Zimmerman, Zumbo, & Ross, 2003; Kane & Brand, 2003; Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009).
Through Spearman’s influence, Raymond Cattell became famous with his two notions regarding the human intelligence, and these are the fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to the human capacity to think logically, reasonably and solve new problems without any cultural influence. On the other hand, crystallized intelligence refers to the human capacity to acquire information and abilities through an individual’s personal experience and interaction with the environment. Moreover, Cattell’s fluid and crystallized intelligence was one of the early representations of intelligence in hierarchical order (Kane & Brand, 2003; Assaad, Pihl, Vitaro, & Tremblay, 2004; Kaufman, 2011).
Aside from Cattell’s theory, Sternberg introduced his triarchic theory into three factors, and these are componential element, experiential element, and contextual element. The componential element refers to the human capacity to analyze, review, assess, appraise, and decide solutions to different problems. The experiential element refers to the human capacity to create, discover, and use existing information in response to new or familiar tasks. Lastly, the contextual element refers to the human capacity in resolving problems through employing and using practical implications. Accordingly, individuals who construe and successfully use these three elements are those who constitute a successful intelligence (Sternberg, 1999; Sternberg, 2005; Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2007).
Lastly, Gardner’s multiple intelligence involves eight types of intelligence, and these are verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. The verbal-linguistic is the human capacity to employ language in solving problem tasks. The logical-mathematical is the human capacity to employ mathematical and scientific understanding. The musical intelligence is the human capacity to employ musical comprehension. The spatial intelligence is the human capacity to employ representations in attaining a purpose.
The bodily-kinesthetic is the human capacity to employ body movement and skills in doing tasks. The naturalistic intelligence is the human capacity to recognize and categorize characteristics of species. The interpersonal intelligence refers to the human capacity to understand other people, and lastly, the intrapersonal intelligence refers to the human capacity to understand oneself. Consequently, multiple theory of intelligence has been a well-known theory in today’s education system because it had helped teachers to understand the dispositional strengths of every student (Nolen, 2003; Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2007).
In summary, Spearman’s notion of general intelligence has served as a proof that there are still other constant intellectual compositions which are present and need to be investigated further. Moreover, there are a number of definitions on human intelligence but all possess the same thought, and that is human intelligence “is a relatively stable attributes of an individual that develops as an interaction between heredity and environment” (Sternberg, 1999, p. 359). Thus, human intelligence is a unique characteristic influenced by experience in which an individual held and possessed aside from his/her personality (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009).
Assaad, J-M., Pihl, R., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (2004). Gender differences in the relationship between Spearman’s “g” factor and a measure of executive cognitive function.” Individual Differences Research, 2 (2), 152-160.
Gottfredson, L., & Saklofske, D. H. (2009). Intelligence: Foundations and issues in assessment. Canadian Psychology 50 (3), 183-195.
Kane, H., & Brand, C. (2003). The importance of Spearman’s g: As a psychometric, social, and educational construct. The Occidental Quarterly, 3 (1), 7-30.
Kaufman, J. C. (2011). Self estimates of general, crystallized, and fluid intelligences in an ethnically diverse population. Learning and Individual Differences, 22 (1), 118-122.
Nolen, J. L. (2003). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Education, 124 (1), 115-119.
Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2007). Human development (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Sternberg, R. J. (2005). The theory of successful intelligence. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 39 (2), 189-202.
Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Intelligence as developing expertise. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 359-375.
Williams, R. H., Zimmerman, D. W., Zumbo, B. D., & Ross, D. (2003). Charles Spearman: British behavioral scientist. Human Nature Review, 3, 114-118. Read More
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