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Ethics - Assignment Example

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However, there are circumstances when legislatures seek to approve or disapprove decisions irrespective of party affiliations on matters of extreme national importance. The principle of…
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Ethics s Ethics Introduction Parliamentary decision making as most democracies is often taken along party lines. However, there are circumstances when legislatures seek to approve or disapprove decisions irrespective of party affiliations on matters of extreme national importance. The principle of collective responsibility fails in cases where a parliamentary party does not have any official position on an issue or when party ideology or principles are considered ambiguous. In such cases, members of parliament often view themselves as basing their informed decisions on ethical considerations as opposed to biased political ambitions. Liberal tolerance is good. However, there are limits to liberal ethics. It is essential for politicians to comprehend that a comprehensive argument, whether written or in oral form, is significant at all stages of policy formulation. For instance, the electorate, the political parties, the executive, the local courts, interest groups and the media often involve themselves in reciprocal persuasion and continuous debates. According to liberal theorists, the above process commences with expression of general concerns and ends with decisions that are concrete.
Arguments are essential not only in clarifying politicians’ position regarding an issue but also focusing people around their position. For instance, when a policy is perfectly explained by a group of individuals seeking self interest or goals, those who aim to justify the policy must plea to the interest of the public and the intellectual merits of the case under discussion. Individuals often miss a great point when they try to comprehend the process of policy making in terms of influence, bargaining and power to the exclusion of argument and debate. Arguments are the only avenue through which policy makers and citizens arrive at moral policy choices and judgments. As a result, debates produce outcomes that are far beyond the authoritarian capabilities or policy making technocratic methods (Majone, 1989).
Follet’s Methods of Dealing with Conflict
In environmental project, conflict is inevitable as change appears to be. As a matter of fact, it is impossible for individuals with backgrounds, norms and skills that are diverse to make decisions, work together and try to meet project objectives and goals without conflict. This raises the need to formulate tangible strategies of handling conflicts. According to Follet (1973), there are three principal ways of managing conflict. These include integration, compromise and domination. Domination is the triumph of one party over another. It is perceived to be simplest way of managing conflicts. However, domination can only work in the short run as it is hard to dominate a rival party in the long term.
Compromise as a conflict resolution strategy works whereby the parties involved in conflict cedes some ground to reach a common consensus for the sake of peace and let the continuation of an activity that has been disturbed by the conflict. This is the approach most favored by trade unions. It is a significant method of putting an end to controversies in situations where no party is willing to shoulder blame. Finally, we have the integration approach. In this method, a solution is only reached when both parties’ desires have found a place. The place is only found when no party has sacrificed anything. Integration involves various steps. The first step is uncovering the real conflict and the next step is taking the demands of both parties involved in a conflict. After that, the demands are broken down into their constituent segments. It is noteworthy that integration is different from compromise. In compromise, an individual can sacrifice his/her needs for purposes of ending a controversy unlike in integration. In addition to that, in compromise, the true demands of a party are not clearly known unlike in integration.
References
Follet, P. (1973).Constructive Conflict. London: Pietman.
Majone, B. (1989). Policy Analysis and Public Deliberation. New Haven: Yole University Press. Read More
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