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Bioterrorism - Assignment Example

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It is therefore essential to augment universal epidemiological surveillance, by formulating highly sophisticated diagnostics and by ascertaining innovative and improved…
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Bioterrorism" Contagious ailments and bioterrorism present foremost fear to nationwide as well as international security. It is therefore essential to augment universal epidemiological surveillance, by formulating highly sophisticated diagnostics and by ascertaining innovative and improved vaccines, anti-bacterial and anti-viral agents. These agents will serve as equipments to combat innate epidemics of transmittable diseases as well as intended operations of bioterrorism. Research is desired in this field to eradicate the threats caused by bioterrorism (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
Bioterrorism is a deliberate attempt to discharge biological agents to spread illness and eventually death of the inhabitants of particular geographical area. These biological agents may be bacteria, viruses or their toxins, either in their natural form or in their modified forms, or with enhanced virulence developed by humans to bring disaster. These agents can spread into the environment through air, water or food. It is enormously complicated to differentiate and detect the presence or these agents as they do not display any immediate complaints and also may not show symptoms for days. Thus, they serve as weapons which are cost-effective, trouble-free to disseminate and are capable of creating an extensive fear (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
One of the most discussed action was noticed in September-October 2001 in USA where numerous cases of anthrax bust out. These cases were due to the deliberate attempt and extended through letters carrying the potential anthrax agent, letters were delivered to the offices of news media along with the office of U. S Congress. Receivers of the letters were victimized with anthrax. Later on when tests were performed the strains were labelled as from a domesticate source. This incidence has paved the way for bio-terrorism and has wagered the meaning of biodefence and biosecurity, as it is highly focused exploitation of biological techniques (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
Bioterrorism agents can be categorized on the basis of the intensity of ailments or fatal consequences they create. Three categories are enumerated on the basis of the risk they dispose. Category A encompasses agents with highest risk while Category C encompasses agents with up-and-coming terrorization for disease. Agents belonging to Category A include: Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin); The Plague (Yersinia pestis); Smallpox (Variola major); Tularemia (Francisella tularensis); Hemorrahagic fever (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
Anthrax bacilli is capable of transmission through direct contact, cause high death rate and throw great impact on public health creating terror and communal commotion. It is therefore bio surveillance is essential for this bacillus (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
Shielding in opposition to attacks require a tough community strength and medical infrastructure. Dynamic and susceptible disease and epidemiological surveillance systems encompassing bio-surveillance are of utmost significant to this infrastructure. They are dexterous in detecting attacks before time and rapidly recognize and discriminate among natural incidence of disease and intended discharges. Bio-surveillance encompasses ongoing organized assortment, investigation and understanding of explicit information required to sketch and execute community health methods. Threats should be taken as a serious hazard and a constant fear of Anthrax outbreak is potentially capable of violating national security (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
The global appearance of new diseases and the recurrence of previous diseases escorts the establishment of some kind of Intelligence Bureau to postulate the emergence of disease and mock-up a intensifying international danger as it is complicating the worldwide security measures. Constant upgrading in bio-surveillance is essential to identify the bioterrorist attacks and at the same time it is essential to administer usual disease epidemics (Web- Bioterrorism Overview).
For constant advancement it is imperative for government authorities to provide a strong guidance and synchronize every bit of bio-surveillance attempts that are in progress across the globe. In order to pursue the task it is essential to get trained and skilled hands to identify the associated symptoms and any kind of bizarre linked with the disease foretelling a budding health predicament or indicating a biological assault. Joint venture actions and preparation are essential to emphasize the crucial bond and secure collaboration between the communal health and health care providers to detect bioterrorism (Hamburg, 2002).
To add to the surveillance, distance education should be implemented by means of academic links can aid to the preparation and the creation of earlier affiliations. CDC is required to improve epidemiological proficiency and promote analytical lab facilities, competence and cooperation. Expansion of paradigm treatment set-up, greatly integrated and trustworthy connections and data administration structure, and widespread computer connections will ease quick collection, investigation, and examination substituting laboratories, public health branches, the medical contributors and research amenities. It is essential to establish regional divisions for rapid data collection and investigation and counterfeit of basic interactions acquaintances (U.S. Senate, 2002).
The complete medical and public health care society is required to be linked with HAN and EPI-X so that communal, research and medical joint efforts should bring better results (U.S. Senate, 2002). Superior assistance in all regions can construct bio-surveillance, extrapolative, with better equipments (Sidney, 1999). Strong leadership is required to procure better bio-surveillance and associated performance. New programs and strategies are not required rather synchronized move for improvement is essential.
Federal, state and local government must provide necessary arrangements, routine lab testing to ensure water safety, food safety and soil safety of the inhabitants of that geographical area. Individuals must be trained to address the issue in an appropriate manner to the local, state or the federal government. Appropriate communication could save the spread of dreaded organism as well as prevent the cost of health care that is required after the spread of deliberately designed organism. Communication is only possible if appropriate awareness is generated through mass media encompassing radio, television and newspapers, posters, banners etc. to educate the people. Still to a greater extent people in all the cities are not prepared because of lack of responsiveness.
Bioterrorism Overview. (n.d.) Retrieved from
Hamburg M. A. (2002). Vice President for Biological Programs at the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Editorial. "Public Health Preparedness. Science Magazine, 29, 1.
Sidney D. Drell; Abraham, D. Sofaer; and George D. Wilson. Editors. (1999). The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons. (Stanford, California: Stanford University, Hoover Institution Press, Hoover National Security Forum Series, 1999). Commentary, 393.
U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. (2002). The State of Public Health Preparedness for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Six-Month Report Card. 107th Congress. Second Session. S. Hrg. 107-507. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 39, 67-73. Read More
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