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This kind of utopianism is not especially useful in the international scheme.
Utopianism is unrealistic. It supposes that a perfect world can be created by men and that is one of our goals on Earth. E. H. Carr, for example, is a realist: he believes the world is not perfectible and that efforts to do so will end in failure and sometime calamity (Copleston, 99). The political system contains too many variables for any person or group to control. The League of Nations is a good example of this. The problems of the world are not the creation of any one person or group and so they cannot be tackled head on. Utopianism is a dead end and Rawls version of it is also a dead end.
In a sense Rawls opinion of international relations is a continuation of Rousseaus (Rawls, 224). To fully understand this with must go back more than 200 years into the past. The Enlightenment was a remarkable time in human history. For many years, humans had lived in an intellectual or cultural “dark ages” where very little changed and people were wedded to their superstitions. Centuries went by and nothing really progressed. Instead of testing the world around them they simply accepted what clergymen or monarchs told them was true and left it at that. They didn’t test their limits; they just read old books and believed the facts in them. But this state of affairs could not last forever. There is an impulse, a curiosity, in humans that seeks sensible explanations. In the 17th century the Enlightenment began. Motivated by trade, the printing press, and a number of very significant intellectual leaders, this period of history saw a lot of the superstitions that guided people’s lives beaten back. Thinkers like Diderot, Voltaire, Adam Smith, and Thomas Jefferson revolutionized the way we think about the world and our place in it (Sahakian, 87). Scientific innovation was also telling us more and more about our world, was
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It is evident from the study that in order to recover from criticism of his theory, John Rawls constantly develops recasts, revises and expands his theory of justice. His works despite being criticized cannot be discarded since there are no alternative theories provided by Sandel. Rawls will be commemorated for his impartial model of justice as fairness.
Plato viewed that some had a better capacity for reason than others, and thus, the more rational individuals ought to be at the top of the social hierarchy because they were 'best suited' for it. By contrast, Rawls viewed inequality not as a biologically determined variable, but as one that was the product of unequal distribution.
Both these philosophers presented their ideology on the political system which holds relevance and importance in the world today. John Rawls Theory of Justice John Rawls political philosophy was presented in 1971 as his work “A Theory of Justice”. The main idea behind this philosophical work led to the shaping up of the modern social democratic and liberal concepts under social justice.
However, people can also derive ethical standards based on a concept of duty from philosophical principles. John’s social contract theory furnishes a very vital example of formalism that influences thinking about personal ethics. This theory concerns itself with systems of establishing a way that people can use to construct a just society given the many inequalities in wealth, social status, and knowledge.
Although he acknowledges that freedom had a lot of definition, he emphasizes that the freedom he was talking about in his writing was freedom that was without any kind of coercion. Hayek in his writings shares his ideology that individuals are caught amidst freedom by reiterating that individuals are either free or not free.
11), trade-offs are not allowed. If justice entitles everyone to an equal share of all social things, then everyone can and must infer one universal right and one universal duty. In this case, the human right never to be exceeded, and the duty is never to exceed.
American Liberalism in the 20th century is an ideology often associated with the philosophy of John Rawls. This idea of individualism and equality is the basic tenet of this contention in the field of politics. However, two other leading political philosophers of the previous and the present century contributed astute and fresh ideas to the liberal thought instituted by Rawls which in turn made the subject of American Liberalism a more controversial field of study in the present century.Rawls' Lecture II in his book a Theory of Justice put forward ideas on pluralism, individualism, equality and moral psychology (Rawls, 40).
However, Rawls in concept of distributive justice goes further in hypothesizing the justice theory under the justice as fairness. The justice as fairness has two principle to drive the following Rawlsian principles of justice the first one is that the liberty principle and the second is the difference principle.
Amongst his works, he is most famous for his A Theory of Justice (1971) which is regarded as a primary text in political philosophy. Apart from this, he has conducted a number of thought experiments related to determining principles of social justice. He is also