They adopt a distributed approach due to which it becomes difficult to control or detect them. They are the basis of many internet crimes like spam, phishing, denial of service attacks etc. Botnet operators are…
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Computers have integrated deeply in our lives and it is due to this fact that the current times can be termed as the technological era. Computers have made life convenient and fast-paced. However, along with the convenience some more things have also been introduced like threat to personal information and intellectual possessions. The invention of internet has aggravated these threats and has given new means for malicious activities. Botnets is one of the newer techniques that is adapted by hackers to gain access to different systems on the network and then perform inappropriate automated tasks through them.
The inception of botnets dates back to the days when the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) was very popular among the internet users. IRC is a protocol that has been developed for real time many-to-many communication. IRC consisted of channels and servers on which communication used to take place. Channels used to be operated by channel operators who were in-charge of monitoring the activities on the channels and servers. With the increase of users on IRC, conflicts also increased between the users. The users wanted to gain access to more servers which thereby created conflicts. Some of the users started developing scripts to attempt denial of service and distributed denial of service attacks on the servers to crash them. Crashing the network used to cause refresh of the server and thus assign a new user as the operator. Later, these scripts started being used to target individuals. These malicious activities began the concept of botnets.
Bot is defined as malicious software that may be residing on a single computer. It is automated and runs by the command from the IRC server, it makes the computer compromised and a part of a wider network of similar infected systems. Enselmi et al. (2010) stated that this server is also called the Command and Control server and the commands are sent in Command and Control
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In the sense of malicious use of computing technology, a collection of bots or computers make up a botnet if they are being exploited by hackers to accomplish malicious duties according to Hudak (nd). A member of a botnet is formed when an infected file is downloaded on it usually from an email attachment.
The compromised zombie army is invaded by a Trojan, which is known as a remote application that installs itself within the system memory or kernel and provides data or connectivity to the hacker. Moreover, Trojan is operational by initiating an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) that waits for any action from the hacker who has full control over the botnet (Rapoza, 2008).
According to the research, statistical multiplexing in a system of TDM requires that all bandwidths needed by the subchannels to surpass the bandwidth of the multiplex channel. In this statistical multiplexing, the maximum rate needed by any single channel is rarely used because of the transmission breaks and therefore, this system is workable in the well-thought-out usage of buffering.
Usually, attackers utilize bots as a means to contaminate huge numbers of personal computers, which eventually form a large network, which is known as a botnet (Craig 2007). Botnets are more often used by attackers to multiply viruses on networks, to hit servers and computers and even to commit various criminal acts.
Jeanson James Ancheta’ and ‘107 F3d 4 United States V. Fernandez Lee’. Both cases were summarized as well as analyzed to conclude its effects and significances. United States of America v. Jeanson James Ancheta Synopsis Jeanson James Ancheta (the defendant), a 21 year old boy of Downey, California was accused as per the Computer Fraud Abuse Act, for the abuse of CAN-SPAM Act and for accessing the protected computers of US governmental agencies for committing fraudulent crimes and causing damages to the computers of the Federal used for the purpose of national defense.
In fact some of the organized cyber attacks which occurred in the recent times have surprised some of the highly technically skilled personnel. Even national economy and security can be destroyed by cyber attacks in the absence of
The result is that millions of computers are infected with spyware and viruses, huge amounts of spam are sent andidentity theft greatly increases.Botnets are currently the major threat on the internet. This is because
Various cyber related crimes including: financial crimes such as online financial services infringement and online fraud; attacks on computer hardware or software such as network intrusion, malware, and botnets; intellectual property crimes; and abuse
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