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The beginning of Islamic Architecture takes place with the construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in the Iberian Peninsula. Muslims as well as the Christians consider it a wonder of the medieval ages. The construction of great mosque of Cordoba initiated in between “784 and 786 at the site of a Christian Visigothic Church” 2. In specific, Abd ar-Rahman acquired the church, and subsequently, his grandchildren modified it over two centuries to transform it into a religious entity, starting in 784. The mosque itself was built in four phases and is observed as a trademark of sacred Islamic architecture. Ferdinand III king of Castile took over Cordoba in 12363 and sanctioned the Great Mosque as the cathedral of city, Mezquita, and used it with negligible changes for the next three centuries4.
In 929, when Abd al-Rahman III5 confirmed himself caliph, and the Spanish Umayyads attained the peak of their supremacy. The caliph built the fortress capital of Madinah al-Zahra about thirteen kilometers Northwest of Cordoba, with its focus to impress the world and exhibit its massive military. He made it his empires managerial and legislative headquarters. The construction in Medina al-Zahra proceeded speedily, particularly since Abd al-Rahman III put in one third of the state revenues in its progression. Finally, he brought in the largest and most grand secular venture of his period, which stayed matchless irrespective of the numerous cities founded until its end. As the caliphate fell in the 11th century, the city then was sacked and smoldered. The new Minister of Caliph Hisham II, Vizir-ul-Mansur6 shifted his concentration towards the east of Cordoba and deserted the city during his reign. Later, the Berber troops destroyed this palace-city in 10107.
The Great Mosque of Cordoba is most illustrious for its gigantic arches, with approximately eight hundred fifty six pillars of natural stones. These legendary
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The purpose of this research paper will be to discuss the history of Islam; Islam and culture; the main principles of the Islamic law; Islamic finance and banking; Islamic finance variations and investments; Islamic education; Islamic architecture; Islamic clothing; Islamic literature; the Mosque; Islamic art and calligraphy.
According to Mavrakis (2009, pp. 2 – 5), Islamic finance has emphasised on trying to remove completely any interest involved in financial transactions. The Quran, which is the Divine revelation presented to Prophet Mohammed, who is the Prophet of Islam, expressly forbids charging of interest, or riba, and Prophet Mohammad himself emphasised on this as mentioned in the Hadith, which is the other source of Islamic law, the Shariah.
It proceeds to examine the aspects of construction and the phases in the development of the construction process. In examining the construction, the labor, materials and equipment that were used are mentioned and discussed. This is followed by the construction and elements for possible improvements that can be employed to make it a better building and improve it according to contemporary standards and elements.
The influence has been contagious. Right from the Romans to the Spanish, a lot of Islam’s influence can be seen. Cordoba is reminiscent of the Islamic paintings depicting gardens and landscapes. Alcázar of Seville is testimony of Muslim influence in architecture.
Under caliphs 'Abd al-Malik, al-Wahid I and al-Wahid II, the sense of dynastic pride indulged through a heady consciousness of family power found its most public expression in ambitious building campaigns
Between 690 and 750, architecture became a family business backed by the immense financial resources of the Islamic state swollen by the accumulated booty of the Arab conquests and by the taxation revenue which came pouring in at the disposal of the Umayyad builders.
The mosque was at one time the largest mosque in the world.
The Great Mosque of Cordoba was actually a church which was converted to a mosque by Umayyad Moors after purchasing it from the Visgothic Christian Church. Located in Cordoba (the Andalusian city of Spain)
There are various forms of archicture that have evolved and developed over these years. Among these many architectures, islamic architecture is one of the most notable and one of the oldest architectures that has evolved.
In qualitative research, the main concern is on the behavior or character traits of the sample being measured (Harrison 2001). Qualitative research mainly aims at giving the explanation of the happening other than just measure and record a phenomenon. The choice of whether to use either of these methods of research is dependent on two factors.
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