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Secondly, there is an individual deterrence in which courts and other law practitioners get certain guidance as to how to deal with the first-time criminals or may be how to carry about sanctions on individual cases so that they deter from the act. Another form of deterrence is absolute deterrence when the threat and the punishment happen to a person who is close to the offender, and thus, he realizes that the same could also happen to him and his family and finally deters. The final form is of restrictive deterrence, when the offender commits one type of sin and refrains from it the next time while, experimenting other misdeeds in subsequent happenings.
Deterrence theories offer certain assumptions regarding the implications that the legal/formal and informal controls might have their impacts on further involvement of the convicted persons in other criminal activities (Lebow & Stein, 1989). They say that if control of either type is exercised, it would reduce the number of criminal activities by the person in future. However, studies conducted at different places reflected quite a contradictory picture revealing that control, in the form of arrest, has no effect in the rate of crime pertained to domestic violence (Sherman, Smith, Schmidt & Rogan, 1992).
Such a collective impact of the two controls are marked under the category of general deterrence, however, the function of informal control would be discussed under the category of specific deterrence and their hypotheses are discussed respectively.
As discussed above, the general deterrence model incorporates the interface of both types of threats and the nature and extent of punishment that they include. There are mainly three hypotheses that come under this category, as elaborated below:
This particular hypothesis advocates that when the offender is more concerned and tied to the societal norms and values, only then, the legal threats in the
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The other concept includes the use of the scientific method to the social world, which can be regarded as objective. The premise of this theory is that the world is a system that comprises of many parts that tend to relate to one another; each part plays a crucial role for the survival of the entire system.
Theories Paper [Name] [Course Title] [University] [Instructor Name] [Date] THEORIES PAPER/ 303 Implementation embodies different meanings and forms in different cultures and institutional framework. This point is of special importance in an era in which the policies and processes of “government” have inevitably converted into those of “governance”.
Studies also involved experimental techniques such as a comparison of groups or control of groups. Later on, attitude building theories approached the ideas of attitude from the behaviorist point of view, and most
All the above mentioned theories have the common principle that the social environment an individual grows up in causes and motivates them to engage in criminal behavior. The different social environments also determine whether the individual will be a
l have the premise of being able to explain how these certain patterns of behaviour and development are linked to how a child grows and changes into a mature adult (Berger 33). While it can be lauded that the theories are instrumental in initiating information about the mind,
This would also entail reviewing nursing journals and books to determine which theories have been used. For instance, a review of Crawford et al. (2006) shows that borrowed theories were only used in the development of nursing
Rule Non-Consequentialist theories are of the idea that blanket rules should be employed to govern the society One of the major examples in Rule Non-Consequential theory is the divine command theory that claims that our only source of morality or moral authority is from a higher source, a spiritual deity like God.
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