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The first historical records about AAA are from Ancient Rome in the 2nd century AD, when Greek surgeon Antyllus tried to treat the AAA with proximal and distal ligature, central incision and removal of thrombotic material from the aneurysm. However, attempts to treat the AAA surgically were unsuccessful until 1923. In this year, Rudolph Matas performed the first successful aortic ligation on a human. Other methods that were successful in treating the AAA included wrapping the aorta with polyethene cellophane, which induced fibrosis and restricted the growth of the aneurysm. Albert Einstein was operated on by Rudolf Nissen with use of this technique in 1949, and survived five years after the operation. (2).
Endovascular aneurysm repair was first performed in the late 1980s and has been widely adopted as a treatment option in the subsequent decades. In recent decades approximately 40,000 patients underwent aneurysm each year. In the United States, 15,000 deaths per year are attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysms. (8)
Anatomy: The aorta is the largest artery in the body. Arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Aorta arises from the left ventricle of the heart, forms an arch, and then extends down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries. Aorta is only 5 - 6cm. long and 16-20 mm. in diameter.
Is focal enlargement of the abdominal aorta usually involving the infra-renal portion of the vessel to more than 50% larger in diameter than the normal aorta or to greater than 3.0 cm in its largest true transverse dimension.
Aortic dissections occur when a tear forms in the intimal layer of the aorta creating a subintimal collection of blood (15). The pulsing high pressures in the aorta then force more blood into this space causing the hematoma to grow distally from its origin (7). The dissection commonly occupies approximately
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These plaques narrow the artery thereby reducing the blood flow in the respective arteries (Dugdale, 2010; Atherosclerosis, n.d). The occurrence of plaque in the coronary arteries will reduce the blood flow to the heart eventually leading to chest pain or angina, breathlessness and heart attack.
This is considered critical because it is through this assessment that a medical professional can ascertain the historical details of a patient, crucial for determining subsequent way of treatment and progress of the a patient. Arnold (2006, pg. 502) further elaborates that proper assessment of a patient, therefore, requires an examination of the state of the art.
Also spleenectomy and perforated duodenal ulcer repair but could not remember the dates.
MEDICAL HISTORY:-Medication Penicillin for infection prevention since he had splenectomy, Ventolin inhalar, furosemide, co-codamal, GTN spray INTIAL CARE:-ambulance service was called on 13thOctober 2006 at 15.16.
Diagnosis at present is based on the clinical history, and the physical examination findings of the examiner. Confirmation of the diagnosis is made easier by the more sensitive, specific and accurate imaging techniques of our times. In its pathogenesis, articles have shown no sole explanation for its occurrence.
3. Carl is on Lipitor which is nothing but atorvostatin which is given for lipid derangements like hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Abnormal lipid metabolism increases the risk of atherosclerosis which
Thinning of either arterial or venous vessel walls, either due to anatomical defect, disease or aging can result in aneurysm development which immediately becomes prone to mechanical disruption due to its abnormality in size and shape as well as the thinning of the vessel
This paper discusses the objective, types and importance of preventive health screening for young adolescents. Screening services are offered for various kinds of diseases including abdominal aortic aneurysm, heart disease risk, stroke, peripheral arterial disease and breast cancer. The object is the identification of traces of symptoms at early stages.
e key to avoiding cardiovascular disease is through management of the risk factors like high blood sugar, HBP, or high cholesterol.one of the best ways to prevent it is through screening since blood pressure cannot be detected. Screening is the procedural set of tests used to