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treptomyces species was co cultured it was found that the metabolites excreted by one strain stimulated the production of the antibiotic in the other. The use of the Bacillus subtilis also found to increase the aerial culture of the Streptomyces by the production of the surfactin, which reduces the surface tension of the medium providing large space for the production of the antibiotics. Similarly the use of the phosphate, the important precursor of the PPP shunt also increased the production of the antibiotic and it also helped to analyze the effect of the co culturing of the strains. Those that did not grow were then trialed in contact with each other and it is noted that there is some growth in some of the specimens where this occurred. Further there is follow up discussion derived from recent research on how and why this function occurs. Signaling is discussed at length as there have recently been many kinds of signaling discovered. There is a literature review which follows the study done here which reviews much of the latest research that has been done under this subject.
Streptomyces are gram positive soil bacteria. They have mycelia and they produce a large variety of the secondary metabolites. These metabolites includes antibiotics, anti tumor agents, immuno suppressants etc., These useful products are produced by the complex lifecycle involved in this soil- dwelling micro organism that is mycelial growth and the spore formation. These bacteria have a high G+C content in their DNA and contain many protein encoding genes. Of the 550 species of the Streptomyces many species have a colorful hyphens and spores. In the recent years, streptomyces has attracted a lot of research due to the fact that they can easily incorporate the eukaryotic genes and they are easy to work with the E.coli. Streptomyces is the most antibiotic producing genus, among the actinomycetes. Some of the important antibiotics of streptomyces include streptomycin, neomycin, chloramphenicol
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Apart from the bacterial diseases some of the common viral diseases causing respiratory infections are sinusitis, pharyngitis, nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, popularly known as common cold. They are highly contagious and regrettably no antiviral drugs are approved for their treatment (Hedrick, E).
Albert Shcatz, Elizabeth Bugie and Selman Waksman were the first American biochemists who isolated the microbe in 1943, and reported its antimicrobial activities in 1944. In fact Streptomycin was the first antimicrobial agent developed after penicillin (Ghosh n.pag).
Some companies focus in R & D, some prefer manufacturing while the biggest pharmaceutical corporations engage in both.
Before the discovery of antibiotics, the best treatment of infectious diseases was experimental. Indeed, it is quite an impossible endeavor to pursue.
The study will include reviews of the use of antibiotic lock in central venous catheters. To show the efficacy of the technique the paper will present clinical studies done with consideration on ethical issues such as consent from patient to take part in the research. The choice of antimicrobials for use in antibiotic lock technique are dependent on the different pathogens suspected to infect the catheter lumen, characteristics of the organisms, and the pharmacodynamic properties of the antimicrobial agent.
Many antibiotics are undergo modifications that changes their inherent characteristics such as reduced toxicity, increases solubility, thus giving them the desirable features that they lack being natural.
There are several methods developed to test the susceptibility of microorganism towards antibiotics including the Cup Borer method, Ditch method and the Disc Diffusion method.
They found that antibiotics allow to neutralize or kill bacteria but 'learn' how to resist this impact. One important aspect of a scientific theory about a phenomenon is that it seeks to unravel and present in a clear way that phenomenon's causal properties and relations.
The mode of action of antibiotics on microorganism are:- inhibition of cell wall synthesis, damage to the cytoplasm membrane, inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, inhibition of specific of enzyme systems. (Michael J Pelczar, 5th edition, page 515)
m WHO annual reports (more so for 2014) on worldwide supervision of ABR discloses that resistance of antibiotics is no longer a future prediction; its right here with us. In 2012 for instance, there were around 450,000 fresh cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).Extensively
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