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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, historically, originated from the foundation of Jihadism. Its cornerstone was established in 1744 AD when Bedouin Saud outlaws headed by Mohammad bin Saud initiated an agreement with Muhammad Ibn’ Abd al-Wahhab, an unknown militant Islamist and a supporter of Jihad (Esposito 1992). The agreement was founded on a contract for the formation of a headed Islamic state led by a Saud King. With combination of imperial politics and theology as tactic they instigated an antagonistic Jihad in the Arabian Peninsula and emerged victorious in the violent invasion of non-Wahhabi tribes (Moussalli 1999). Executing a similar tactic they also occupied in 1924 the international hub of Islam, Mecca (Esposito 1992).
After the official proclamation of Saudi Arabia in 1932 as an autonomous Kingdom of Saud, the major priority of the monarchy was how to sustain their guardianship of the two most sacred temples of Islam and uphold highest position of the kingdom in the Islamic world (Furnish 2005). In actual fact, due to the lack of a reliable history of becoming the guardian of the most sacred cities of Medina and Mecca, the House of Saud consistently dreaded the non-Wahhabi Islamic militants. As a result, while using Jihad as a continuous tactic they transformed the Kingdom into the headquarters of Islamic fanaticism (Gold 2004). From then on, dominating the Islamic realm under the Wahhabi ideal of traditional Islam it turned into the main programme of its succeeding monarchs for strengthening their status (Gold 2004). After World War II, when there was a steady disintegration in colonial supremacy of the Christian realm, the Kingdom of Saudi became determined to invade the Islamic realm by propagating Wahhabi Islam and afterward to move towards the extension of Islamist hegemony beyond their protective borders (Crone 2004). Unearthing of a large portion of world oil reserve and its development in partnership with western superpowers not merely
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The aim of this paper is to examine the counter terrorism methods that have been and are being used in Saudi Arabia, with particular emphasis on the so-called ‘soft’ model of counter terrorism that has been incorporated.
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