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They did not move quickly enough, however, and in the autumn of that year Yeltsin simply dissolved the old former soviet political apparatus and declared that a new Duma (Parliament) would be elected. The Duma election was scheduled for 1995 and Yeltsin himself ran for re-election as president in 1996. These events characterized a period of immense political and economic instability and this was the environment in which a new breed of key players was born: the so-called “Russian Oligarchs”.
The term “oligarch” is derived from the Greek meaning “governing by the few” and it usually has negative connotations relating to the abuse of power. There are at least four important factors which contributed to the emergence of the oligarchs and their growing influence in both politics and economic life in the period 1993-1999. This study will look at each of these in turn:
By the autumn of 1993, it was clear to all observers that the old Soviet systems had fallen away and there was no immediate substitute in place. Yeltsin relied upon his personal authority and the support of the military to wrest control out of a disintegrating situation. The scene was set for a new era. Waller (2005: 13) analyses this decade under the heading “The Yeltsin years 1991-1999: reaping the whirlwind” and this is a good description of the mood in Russia across all sections of society. Old systems and habits had simply been swept away and no one could tell what would happen next. Other commentators stress the risks inherent in the new situation: “Russia and the other post-communist societies had to feel their way forwards on the edge of a precipice in the dark.” (Sakwa, 2008: 303). The majority of the population seems to have suffered a certain amount of shock and paralysis. The old communist regime had produced many inefficient
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Why does the EU rely so much on policy networks to make its political system function? The policy network model of 1970 first highlighted the aspects of post parliamentary politics. With Europeanization of various policies implementing sectors, EU has increased their dependence on policy networks (Richardson, 2006, p.1014).Such networks have provided the interest groups with multiple opportunities for framing policies (Richardson, 2006, p.1015).
To Saussure, there exists a great deal of interest in finding how language manages to develop its essence based on form and structure. This basic claim signifies how formalists, in the endeavor to study ‘literariness’ within a school of literary theory and analysis, came to the point of treating literary approach as distinct from the conventional way with language in the sense that literary language is characterized by special utilization of devices or features that are perceptible beyond tradition.
Friedrich Hegel was a major figure in German idealism with historicism account of reality with which he developed a philosophical framework that accounted for integrated and developmental way of for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, religion history and philosophy (Barbour, 2012).
There are no people to be seen, there is no garbage on the street, and even the windows of a shop across the street appear without any decoration. The lights from inside of the diner illuminate the barrenness of the outside, allowing the observer to see quite clearly the emptiness and the aloneness of the patrons sitting inside.
Serving as its base was the group Communists for Democracy in the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) (the leader was Alexander Rutskoi, elected Russia's vice president in June 1991), and the Democratic Movement of Communists (Vasily Lipitsky's group).
It permeates the way of life of every human being, influencing their quality of life, the directions they would take, and their future. It also affects governments and their policies, requiring serious contemplation and even shifts in their strategies and policies to ensure sustainable existence in an increasingly competitive and shrinking "global village".
After years of harsh monarchical rule and nearly one hundred years of highly controversial communist dictatorship, Russia is struggling under the pressure to redeem itself as a viable and strong nation. Poverty, deprivation and social exclusion have all been pinpointed as the facets of the new Russian state that need the most work; however a number of researchers and citizens of Western countries seem to have the opinion that these have been significantly improved after the financial crisis of 1998.
the Roman Empire, the Mongol Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Russian Empire, etc. Here our primary aim is in describing "driving forces", both external and internal, which were most important at the stages of appearing and expansion of the Russian Empire.
The economy is the foundation upon which sees the establishment of the societal superstructure and also one among the various institutions that constitutes the society. The economy is also an extension of the religious or spiritual belief.
The economy is the foundation of