Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Protein - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The peptic digest was subjected to chromatography on the weak cation-exchange resin, Macro-prep CM. Two protein fractions F1 and F2 corresponding to two eluate peaks were collected using 10% acetic acid as…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.1% of users find it useful
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Protein"

Download file to see previous pages Results indicated antibacterial activity to be present in pepsin-digested lactoferrin and F2 sample. Thus, purification of lactoferricin obtained through peptic digestion of bovine lactoferrin was accomplished by fractionation of the hydrolysate using cation exchange chromatography.
Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein and, as the name suggests, is a constituent of milk. It is also found, to a lesser extent, in various mucosal (exocrine) secretions of mammals that are commonly exposed to normal flora such as tears, nasal exudate, saliva, bronchial mucus, gastrointestinal fluids, cervicovaginal mucus and seminal fluid (Weinberg, 2003). Also, Lf is produced by secondary granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for deposition at septic sites. The granular contents of neutrophils can be released into inflammatory fluids after neutrophil death, by what is known as "holocrine secretion". The protein is closely related to transferrin, the iron-transport protein present in the plasma. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional innate-defense protein, known to exert a broad-spectrum primary defense activity against microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses (Orsi, 2004), and even some antibiotic-resistant pathogens (Wakabayashi et al., 2003). Lf is found in high concentrations in breast milk (~3–7 mg/ml) and tear fluid (1–4 mg/ml) (Rogan et al., 2006). Among the many constituents of milk which have revealed antimicrobial activity, lactoferrin exhibits both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against a wide array of microorganisms, including those causing gastroenteric infections, food poisoning, listeriosis and mastitis (Dionysius et al., 1993). Recently, clinical trials have demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) administration can reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis in humans (Tsuda et al., 2010). A key role of Lf is to scavenge non-protein-bound iron in body ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Protein Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words”, n.d.)
Protein Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words. Retrieved from
(Protein Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 Words)
Protein Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 Words.
“Protein Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Protein Quantitation

... Assay Accurate protein quantitation is paramount to all experiments that are related to proteins in a lot of research topics in molecular biology, developmental biology, cell biology, neuroscience, and biochemistry. Different techniques have been developed to quantitate proteins in the last century, both for the total protein content and a single protein. Total protein content quantitation methods include Bradford assays. Bradford assay, which was initially described by Dr. Marion Bradford in 1976, is one of the commonly used methods to determine protein concentration. This method relies on formation of a complex between proteins in solution and the Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 dye. This dye exists in four different ionic forms. The more...
5 Pages(1250 words)Lab Report

Protein Families

...structures and functions help in understanding the exact relationships between the proteins and in identifying protein families and features (Gaeta 1997; Lengauer, 2002). The data obtained is organised in such a way so as to access the already existing information on proteins, in this case and develop tools and resources to analyse the data. Development of tools and resources for bioinformatics would involve an integration of computational theory with an understanding of cellular mechanisms. The analysis of proteins can be done at three different levels - 1. at the level of single gene analysis 2. at the level of complete genomes 3. at the level of genes and genomes...
16 Pages(4000 words)Coursework

Protein Concentration

... and secondary structure Tertiary structure, non-local interactions responsible for the overall helicoidal shape of the protein molecule (fig. 2) Quaternary structure, shape that results from the interaction between several protein molecules [M. W. King]. Proteins are not completely rigid systems and they shift between several related structures while they perform their biological functions or roles. Such changes are often induced by the binding of a substrate to the protein's active site. Figure 2: Albumin Biuret reagent The Biuret reagent is composed of potassium hydroxide (KOH), copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4) and potassium sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O64H2O). This reagent is used in a protein assay, a colorimetric test to determine...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report


...proteins are so important is that they are mad up of amino acids, acids that are necessary for life to function as we know it. While it is true that our bodies can make amino acids by itself, it cannot make all of the amino acids that are needed for life, and must get some of them from the food it consumes. These amino acids thus come from proteins, which should be staples in everybody’s diet. Proteins can come from many different varieties of food, such as meat, egg, grains, and other diary products. These foods are essential to our diet as it is vital to our existence to take these proteins into our bodies so we can use the amino acids they are made up...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Protein Synthesis are located. During translation, mRNA is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the trinucleotide genetic code. Transcription involves four steps or phases: Activation, Initiation, Elongation and Termination. In Activation—the correct amino acid (AA) is joined to the correct tRNA. In Initiation, the small sub unit of ribosome binding to 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF). The other proteins assist the process. In Elongation, the next aminoacyl tRNA (charged tRNA) linebinds to the ribosome along with GTP and an elongation factor. Termination of polypeptide happens when the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA, UAG or UGA). No tRNA can recognize it. But the...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Caveolin protein

... and CAV-2 can be found in most cells whereas CAV-3 can be found in muscle cells of the heart (Yuan, Garcia and Hales 275). Having a complete sequence status, the size of amino acid length of CAV-1 is 178 (UniProtKB). As a 21- to 24-kDa protein, CAV-1 is composed of 16 amino acids longer than CAV-2 and additional N-terminal 27 amino acids as compared to CAV-3 (Fielding 177). CAV-1 has two variants known as CAV-1α (contains amino acid tyrosin 14) and CAV-1β (does not contain the “first 31 amino acid present in CAV 1α) (Mercier, Jasmin and Lisanti 18). Both CAV-1α and 1β can be found in the lungs whereas CAV-1β can be found in the epithelial cells (Yuan, Garcia and Hales 275). With regards to internalization of the material, Garcia...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

G protein

.... 260). The biological signals send by the G proteins are received by the receptors. In addition, the G proteins forward the signals by a way of mediation of various numbers of intermediaries to those effectors that control genes in reaction to the signals. Following activation of the G protein coupled receptors, the ligand attach to the G protein coupled receptors which causes a conformational transformation in the G protein coupled receptors thus permitting it to function as guanine nucleotide exchange element (Miller & Newton, 2010 p. 268). When the G protein coupled receptors are activated, the GEF sphere activate or energizes the...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Protein Quantification

...appropriately and placed on the floating rack. To each labeled microcentrifuge tube 50 μl of each different protein standard (D,E,F,G and H) or water (for reagent blanks) or unknown samples X, Y and Z are added. 1 ml of the BCA reagent is added,and mixed well by inverting the capped tubes.the rack is transferred to a 60oc water bath and Incubated for 30 minutes. After the 30 minutes of incubation the rank is removed from the water bath and the samples allowed to cool.1 ml of each reaction is transfered to a 1 ml cuvette and A562 in a spectrophotometer read. The spectrophotometer zero is set to using one of the reagent blanks (reaction set up with water). RESULTS: Table 1: Calibration curve of protein...
11 Pages(2750 words)Lab Report

Protein Research

...). Contractile proteins such as actin and myosin are responsible for the movement of the body cells through muscle contraction and movement. Enzymes are another category of proteins, and they are responsible for the facilitation of biochemical reactions whereby they speed up the reactions. Proteins of this kind are mainly involved in the digestive system, e.g., the lactase for sugar breakdown and the pepsin for protein breakdown. Another category of proteins is the hormonal proteins which are messenger proteins that help in the coordination of bodily activities(Creighton, 2010). The most common hormonal protein is insulin that controls the blood sugar levels in the body(Creighton, 2010). Other hormonal proteins are oxytocin and somatotropin...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Protein you can recall. Proteins have various functions. They are broken down to amino acids which then provide energy to the body. Thus they serve as an energy source. They also form various enzymes, blood transporters and plasma proteins that perform the function of transport and help to control water balance. Proteins are also an integral part of clotting factors. Muscle proteins are also very important as they bring about contractions. Hormones such as insulin and glucagon are also made of proteins. Elastin and collagen which are integral parts of connective tissues are also made up of proteins. Q 3. How small must...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

A Normal C Reactive Protein and Significant Bacterial Infection in Children with Fever

... – Reactive protein, an acute phase reactant is synthesized by the liver (Andreola et al, 2007). After the onset of tissue injury and inflammation, C – Reactive protein is produced within 4 – 6 hours following the injury, and it doubles every hour before it peaks around 36 hours. In response to this, C – Reactive protein has been studied as a sensitive marker of bacterial infection (Andreola et al, 2007). Chan et al (2003) noted that in response to infection, no definite correlation between infection and changes in the levels of CRP has been documented despite of large increase that occur. Additionally, Chan et al added that using low levels of CRP to exclude the presence of infections remains to be controversial. C – Reactive protein can...
17 Pages(4250 words)Literature review

Protein Intake and Bone Loss and Bone Fractures

... protein and BMD, in both sexes. Avenell & Handoll, 2003 conducted a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized trials in patients aged 65 years or more, to evaluate whether protein and energy supplementation could influence the recovery after hip fracture. The limited evidence (three trials) showed that oral protein and energy supplements may reduce an unfavorable outcome (Avenell & Handoll, 2003.) Sellmeyer et al., 2001 did a prospective cohort study in women aged more than 65 years, over a period of years. The density of the hip bones was measured. The results confirmed the hypothesis that an increased intake of vegetable protein along with a reduced intake of animal protein reduces the nutrition-induced...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

An Examination of the Relationship between Excess Dietary Protein and Bone Loss or Fractures in Elderly People ongoing studies on dietary protein and risk for bone loss or fractures. The weakness of the study would be the inability to capture or examine other factors in greater detail. An understanding of the relationship between dietary protein and risk of bone loss or fracture could help prevent fractures, especially in elderly people. Aims and Objectives The study aims to study the relationship between protein consumption and loss of bone mass or bone fractures in elderly people aged 55-95 years. More specifically, the study objectives are to test the following hypotheses. 1. Excess dietary protein causes bone loss or fracture in elderly people. 2. Animal...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal

Evidence for the Suggestion that the Prion Protein May Function as Metal Binding Protein

... that prions cause prion diseases (Davies, 2008). The copper-binding property may be linked to this function. The metal-binding property of PrP is being investigated in this paper along with the techniques that are associated with the prion for metal-binding. Studies have suggested two opposing functions for copper bound prions: as anti-oxidants for the neuronal functions and as pro-oxidants increasing the neurodegenerative process (Yokawa et al, 2008). The Human Prion Protein Figure 1 The Amyloid Precursor Protein and Secretase Cleavage Four clear copper binding regions are available on the human prion protein. The seven sites, four in the octarepeat region, the short sequence, neurotoxic region and the helical region are the four...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Why Protein Based Diets Can Be Deadly for Some Individuals

... protein intake of individuals is determined by the metabolic demand which can be defined as the flow of amino acids through metabolic pathways which maintain the body structure and function. The pathways convert individual amino acids into important metabolites and then into nitrogenous end products including urea and other compounds in sweat, urine and faeces and also synthesise protein from the body as hair, skin and other secretions (WHO, 2007). Fates of amino groups in dietary proteins Ingested proteins are degraded into constituent amino acids in the stomach and small intestine by proteases. The initial step in the catabolism of amino acids is the removal of the amino group from its carbon skeleton by enzymes called transaminases...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework

Amino Acid Found in the Protein

... GLPGFRVGIIYSFNDDVVNCARKMSSFGLVSTQTQYFLAAMLSDEKFVDNFLRESAMRLGKRHKHFTNGL EVVGIKCLKNNAGLFCWMDLRPLLRESTFDSEMSLWRVIINDVKLNVSPGSSFECQEPGWFRVCFANMDD GTVDIALARIRRFVGVEKSGDKSSSMEKKQQWKKNNLRLSFSKRMYDESVLSPLSSPIPPSPLVR The sequence of the first ten amino acids in this protein as encoded in the open reading frame is: Methionine, Glycine, Phenylalanine, Glutamate, Isoleucine, Alanine, Lysine, Threonine, Asparagine, Serine, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene sequence: 1458 base pairs... of the protein encoded by this gene? Depending on your sequence, this may be the same name as the gene. The protein is called 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. What is the sequence of the first...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Urine Protein Test

... signs of protein in the urine (Mundt & Shanahan, 2011). Results and Implications of the Test In the medical field, it is widely accepted and recognized that for a random urine sample, the normal protein level should range between 0 to 20mg/Dl (Mundt & Shanahan, 2011). In cases where one’s urine protein levels surpass the 20mg/Dl mark, there has to be cause for concern because there may be a strong possibility of kidney damage. Diseases and conditions that may set the alarm bells ringing may include the following: kidney infection, kidney failure, glomerulonephritis, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, malaria, arthritis, leukemia, amyloidosis, sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, urinary tract infections, Good pasture’s...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Discovery of a New Gene and Analysis of the Encoded Protein

... similar to TTSP than the rest. Report on the discovery of a “new” gene and Analysis of the Encoded Protein Introduction Type II membrane serine like protease (TTSP) generally belongs to a protein family of proteolytic enzymes that have been identified in humans. A careful analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the unknown gene and its encoded protein revealed a number of close similarities with TTSP. Numerous genome studies have revealed that the gene associated with TTSP is involved in a diverse role of physiological roles in the body some of which include regulation of cancer development and its progression in the human body. A number of cloning vector contamination was, however, detected in the nucleotide sequence. One...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Human Diseases and Protein Folding: the Preservation of Biological Tasks

... from the increased intracellular levels of these proteins due to lack of regulation or pathological conditions. These will be supported by current research and studies that have been performed in this field. Role of Proteins in the Transfer of Genetic Material Proteins are an indispensable component of the human body since virtually all the basic cell functions are performed by proteins. They are essential for cell function since most chemical reactions and other structural components are supplied and mediated by the proteins. Proper folding and maturation of secretory and transmembrane proteins is known to take place in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) (Austin 2009, p. 2280). The folding of the protein to form a native conformity occurs...
12 Pages(3000 words)Book Report/Review

Enzyme and Protein

..., storage, Enzyme and Immunoglobulin proteins. The largest group of proteins is the structural proteins (Neurath, 1975). Structural proteins serve as essential components to your body's construction. Common examples of structural proteins are Keratin and collagen. Keratin forms the structure of the skin, nails, hair and teeth. While, collagen serves as a connective structure for tendons, bones, muscles, cartilage and skin in particular. Storage proteins house critical elements that your cells need in order to accumulate particular body components. Hemoglobin, for instance stores oxygen in the red blood cells. Ferritin is another storage protein that houses the crucial element iron, which helps the body make healthy red blood cells. Hormonal...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Protein for FREE!

Contact Us