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According to Piagets theory of cognitive development, there are four stages of cognitive development and the first stage or the sensorimotor stage occurs between birth to 24 months and the second stage or the preoperational stage occurs between 2- 7 years of age. In the sensorimotor stage, there are six sub-stages. During the first weeks of life, reflexive behaviours facilitate coordination of sensation. The main reflexes involved are sucking, movements of eyes and palmar grasp. From the six weeks of life to 4 months, coordination of sensation occurs through habits reflex and primary circular reactions. From 4-8 months, coordination between vision and comprehension occurs and children develop habits at this stage. The dawn of logic occurs at this stage. Between 8- 12 months, touch-hand-eye coordination occurs. Coordination between means and ends also occurs at this stage. Piaget called this stage "first proper intelligence." Goal orientation and deliberate steps to meet an objective begin in this stage. At the age 12- 18 months, children experiment with new behaviour. Piaget suggested that children discover new means to meet their goals at this stage. Between 18- 24 months, children begin to use primitive symbols and develop enduring mental representations. This stage is marked by the development of true creativity and insight. The next stage of development according to Piaget is the preoperational period. This stage begins by the end of 2 years and new kind of psychological functioning develops. The mental operations are inadequate and sparse. The child begins to use and represent by drawings, words and images. Thinking at this stage is egocentric and the child is not in a position to understand the viewpoint of others (Piaget and Inhelder, 1973).
According to Erikson, during the first stage of development occurs between 0-1 year, during which period, the basic needs are met by
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Children go through a number of cognitive stages in intellectual development (Piaget, as cited in Coon, 2009, p.112), and they learn to develop emotional attachment right from their infancy with the help of “a number of attributes that help them to maintain contact with others and do elicit caregiving” (Shaffer, 2009, p.142).
First, infants and children spend most of their time with the family members. As such, they will be highly affected by the behavior of these family members. Children and infants are known to copy what they see their family members do. In so doing, they will have an array of behaviors that are transferred from the older family members to them.
The author analyzes Piaget’s theory, which gives a detailed understanding of how infants develop cognitive skills. This theory says that infants build mental structures to adapt to their surrounding environment in the same way they develop their physical bodies to adapt to the world, but the environment doesn't pour information into their minds.
During these stages, a number of “neurological growth and development” transpire, affecting children physically, emotionally, mentally, and psychologically, depending on how they are nurtured (Hagele, 2005). There are different factors that affect children during infancy and early childhood which may facilitate or hamper the furtherance of their development.
ng will be done using different sources such as the report produced by the ministry of education and science in Sweden (MOEASS) in December 1999, and UNESCO report, the case of Sweden in May 2002. Articles by Children’s Society have also been taken for background information.
The infant is an actively dynamic being characterized with constant and gradual sequence of changes in development of the neuro-system as well as the physical growth. Internal and external forces, in a way, influence growth of every individual and produces differences
For instance, a young child or baby’s cuddling, crying and orienting instincts are intended to evoke responses of caregiver, while infants are found to prefer the voice and appearance of their primary care provider over other kinds of stimuli. The child