Bottery (1996) suggested that at least seventeen different criteria have been claimed at one time or another to describe professional behaviour. Salient characteristics included subscription to a specialised…
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All these characteristics ensure that a professional demonstrates expertise and dominance over his or her trade. Thus, professionalisation became a common trend among different occupations, and one that has received great attention from sociologists (Wueste, 1997).
Whilst professionalisation is generally accepted as an important direction among occupations, it has received various criticism coming from different angles. Andrew Abbott’s main critic about the notion of professionalism are particular claims of theorists that “the evolution of professions are unidirectional; that the development of individual professions does not depend on that of others; that what professions do—the work as well as the requisit expertise—is less important than how they are orgnised to do it; that professions are homogeneous units; and that the process of professionalisation does not change over time” (Wueste, 1997, p. 8). Related to the last element identified by Abbot, another major critcism relies on the manner that professionalism is instituted. A number of occupations have developed higher levels of training and standards of practice to enhance their claims to professional status. However, Wilensky (1964) said that many of these groups rested on a knowledge base which was either too general and vague, or too narrow. Their knowledge base was weak and not directly used by them. Professionalism is further complicated by copmeting modes of institutionalising expertise, such as commodification and beurocratic organization (Wuestes, 1997). Thus, a more preferred term was used by Etzioni (1969) to classify these occupations: semi-professionals.
The field of education has been historically in constant threat of de-professionalisation (Bottery & Wright, 2000), and teachers may be seen as being prime examples of what Etzioni (1969) call as semi-professionals. Much of the issues are traced to how the educational
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Distributed leadership (DL) evolved as the need to improve student achievement increased, and the financial resources to accommodate more administrators decreased. Distributed leadership (DL) has been defined by many writers as shared leadership, capacity building, and transformational leadership (Leithwood and Jantzi, 2003).
It is a complex process of teaching and learning, where both participants learn something from each other. Therefore it’s a two way learning which is only effective when teachers play their respective roles in the learning process of the child. Understanding of psychological facts and the implementation of planning in an innovative manner accordingly, helps to achieve the targets.
It has changed in terms of new innovative ideas and complexities used in the process of learning. Various kinds of training and development processes are used in the process of professional learning for the enhancement of skills and perceptions of the working people.
This assessment is valid even if the statistics digest claimed success in the way the US educational system has been managed for the last 20 years.
As per the description of the US Department of Education (2009), reading scores are from zero to 500. The students
What the schools have today is merely a geography subject that is adopted and taught because it was mandated by the curriculum, it was just there. For a good number of educators and schools, it is merely a basic subject that is
It is recording remembered letter sequences, word shapes or heard sounds in graphic form. Spelling is relating medium of sound into graphic substance. This paper discusses the learning, teaching, understanding and spelling development in primary education.
The authors explain the each tool; video, blogs, wikis, web and podcasting and gives examples of institutions that used these tools. They clarify that technological tools have a positive impact on student’s lives because
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