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In addition to causing severe environmental damage, it also affects the basic right of human beings to a healthy environment (Ajunwa, 2007). Illegal dumping of toxic wastes, which are generated in developed countries such as Europe and America, in to third world countries such as Africa, South-east Asia, India and China has become a routine in the recent past. This is mainly due to the huge quantities of toxic wastes such as electronic and petrochemical wastes, asbestos and wastes from refineries and shipping industries that are being generated. Such illegal dumping has had an enormous impact on the health of people living in the developing nations especially in countries such as Africa. Reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of deaths and diseases caused by such illegal dumping of toxic wastes. Following increased dumping of waste products in the developing world, the Basel convention laid down regulations to control the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes which prevented the export of toxic wastes from the developed nation to the developing world. However, subsequent inspection of ports in the European nations reveled that nearly 47% of wastes that was destined for illegal export a recent incident being the dumping of about 550 tones of toxic wastes in the Abidjan port by the firm Trafigura Beheer BV. This situation calls for stricter policies which are required in order to prevent the use of developing nations as a dumping ground (Godoy, 2010).
Hazardous wastes include solids, liquids or gases that may cause harm to both humans and the environment. Increased production of such wastes by certain multinational companies initiated the export of such wastes to countries such as Africa. This led to serious environmental damage by affecting the water and air quality that killed many children and adults. Estimates show that nearly 300 million tones of
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(Green Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words - 1)
“Green Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1565762-green-criminology.
Constitutive criminology views human as interconnected and responsible for creating the society with other subjects, non-human victims inclusive. Concern for non-human victims of crime, therefore, should be part of criminologists’ investigations. Constitutive criminology accommodates diverse range of harms.
These Acts will be measured by the harm that they cause to identifiable victims. There are four main primary categories of green crimes in which the environment becomes degraded through human actions all of which have become the subject of legislative efforts.
However, Briggs and Friedman (2009, p. 32) mentioned that crimes in the 21st century include crimes related to the environment. Potter (2010a, Slide 6) explained that criminology is concerned with crimes, particularly with acts and omissions regulated by criminal law, as well as with harms or victims, and justice.
Nevertheless, scenes of brutality present opportunities for prison films to challenge the existing penal state since any opposition discourse is subject to an entanglement similar to a scene of violence and sexual assault. Secondly, presentation of prisoners as dehumanised and deserving of harsh treatment together with acceptance and normalization of death penalty reaffirm prison as a cornerstone for criminal justice sanctions; thus, prison films offer information to viewers.
On the other hand, Criminology is the scientific study of Criminal justice as well as crime, criminals, and criminal behavior; their main task being, research on why people turn to crime such as biological, psychological and sociological
White (2008) defined green or environmental criminology as the study of environmental harm, environmental laws and environmental regulation by criminologists (White, 2008, p.8). Green criminology is relatively a new term came into existence in the current world. It refers to the concerns general public have over the violations of animal rights.
Criminal laws that protect animal rights are aimed at preserving species and ecological justice. The term species justice refers to the right of animals and other species of non-humans to guard themselves against human abuse and cruelty. As such it is essential to guarantee animal rights through appropriate legislation and enforcements.
Human trafficking is the new term for slavery. In a quest to make their standard of living better, many innocent people fall prey to the nefarious motives of human traffickers. Human trafficking is being carried out in almost all countries of
Criminologists have adopted diverse ways of incorporating social and behavioral sciences in the study of criminology. Social philosophers developed varied theories that explain the reasons or cause for increased crimes in the society.
According to the author, the government efforts have been seen in securing wildlife and environmental justice through legislation and implementation of international standards and protocol. The main goal of environmental justice is to preserve a sustainable environment through upholding the CITES 1975 treaties and various UN environmental declarations.
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