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These include drugs such cocaine which is harvested in the jungles of Columbia before it makes its way to the cities of London, New York and Paris. In Afghanistan, the poppies of this country are harvested, sent to heroin processing plants in Eastern Europe before they find their home in the veins of Western Europeans and North Americans. In addition to the globalisation of drugs and the internationalisation of narcotics, globalisation has increased the incidents of piracy, counterfeit goods and organ trafficking. Perhaps most insidiously, globalisation has paved the way for an international traffic in people which involves the smuggling of refugees in addition to the international traffic of women. While some women are trafficked to work as domestic servants or as migrant laborers, the majority are sold into sexual slavery and exist as 21st century slaves. While international piracy, the spread of international counterfeit goods and organ trafficking are all interesting subjects the study from a sociological perspective in light of the internationalisation of crime, due to the limited scope of this analysis the following will focus upon the international traffic of women as well as the internationalisation of drugs. Since the global traffic of women for sexual servitude is perhaps one of the most insidious byproducts of the globalisation movement, the following will begin with an overview of this exploitative trade.
“It is clear that organised crime is going through a period of rapid and dramatic change. Globalisation is reshaping the underworld, just as a combination of evolving law-enforcement strategies and technological and social change is breaking down old forms of organised crime (monolithic and identified by physical “turf” or ethnic identity), and creating new, flexible networks of criminal entrepreneurs”.
Accordingly, complex economic interdependence has increased the avenues for
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In conclusion, the substance has effectively highlighted the definition if transnational criminology and how it is perceived and responded to on an international façade. Dr. Aafia’s and Raymond Davis’ example clearly demonstrates as to why criminologists need to look beyond the State Territorial principle.
A criminal engaged in transporting drugs would likely to be engaged in transporting many other illegal goods also. “Organized crime is both a social system and a social world; the system is composed of relationships binding professionals, criminals, politicians, law enforcers, and various entrepreneurs” (Block, 1980).
On the other hand, countries that contain oil such as those in the Persian Gulf have contributed immensely to the supply of energy sources to America and its industrial partners. These links have assisted establish efficient relations between America and friendly Muslim and Arab nations (Jocelyne, 2007).
What developments over the last 20 years have made transnational crime harder to detect and prosecute?
Military thinkers term it as asymmetric warfare or the insurgency, which is sponsored by non-state actors. No the nations don’t need to go for an all-out war with the adversaries; the same objectives can be achieved by merely sponsoring / promoting the insurgencies / crimes in that state, which is termed as transnational crimes.
Gangs in operating in several countries are associated with money laundering, human trafficking, drugs and the key driver of the emergence of such gangs is getting rid of poverty. Transnational gangs started having influence after the El Salvador civil war in the 1990s (National Institute of Justice, 2013).
Terrorism is either classified based on the motive. Domestic terrorism is among people of one nation while international terrorism is that of a group in one country targeting another country. Federal crime terrorism is that whereby terrorist makes threats by holding people or property in hostage and demanding money to release them.
The author provides an overview of the tendencies and development of the cross-border flows of “dirty money” in global scales. Thus, the overall amount of laundered money has exceeded 2, 5 trillion USD in 2009 (Schneider 2013). The
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