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Motivation theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s dichotomy of hygiene factors and motivating factors, McGregor’s theory ‘X’ and theory ‘Y’ people, Edgar Schein’s assumptions based approach, Tailor’s scientific management approach, Elton Mayo’s theory, Adams equity theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory have been in used for long time. These models propose circumstances under which employees will be internally motivated to do their tasks effectively according to Hackman and Oldham (1976). However practical situations in the organizational setting can be an admixture of some or all of these theories. There was a time when employees were assumed as only another input into the process of manufacturing of goods and services. According to Lindner (1998) what probably changed this notion was research, known as the Hawthorne Studies, performed by Elton Mayo in between 1924 to 1932.
Maslow (1998) used a pyramidal hierarchical structure to depict the needs of employees at the work place. According to him self-actualization occupies the top-most rung in the hierarchy of needs. Secondly self-esteem needs come as of importance. Thirdly needs of love and affection come and fourthly safety related needs are of importance to the employee. Finally at the base of the pyramid there are those physiological needs.
Individual employees who are more likely to need self-actualization benefits would display some individual characteristics. For example acceptance and realism are associated with such employees. This is due to the fact that such employees regard themselves as more realistic and accordingly adjust themselves to the work environment with a degree of ease. Secondly their problem solving behavior endears them to many higher officials outside their own work environment. Their motivation basically comes from a
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Motivation can be thus understood as the driving force that makes the workers act in a way that is conducive for the betterment and progress of the organization. Managers are in a position to take measures that would improve the motivation level of the workers.
(Budget Hotel Brands) 1 Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Importance of Brand Management 3 Global Recession and Budget Hotels 4 Strategies for Budget Hotels 5 References 7 Introduction The initiation of branding could be traced back to 200 BC when the world’s first brand was born.
While the earlier theories tended to emphasize more on the behaviours and characteristics of the successful leaders; the theories generated later on focussed more on the followers roles and the contexts in which leadership prevailed. Majority of the theories are based on the individualistic perspective of the leaders.
Hospital employees that are not motivated to perform their job are a liability because they are more likely to commit mistakes than motivated workers. The persons responsible for keep the morale and motivation of employees high are the managerial staff of the organization.
Apple began its journey by launching the first Apple computer on the 1st of April, 1976; Apple I was launched, by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs (Bellis). Apple I was the first that used a single circuit board, but did not gain attention of the customers until it debuted in the 1977 in one of the local computer trade shows (Bellis; apple-history, 2013).
Creswell & Clark, (2007) note hat it is research which drives the society. Various methods have been used by various people to conduct research depending on the area/ field of specialization that the persons conducting these researches are orientated to. In hard or earth sciences such as biological sciences, chemistry, statistics, among other physical sciences, quantitative methods of research are usually the most preferred methods of data collection and analysis while quantitative research is mainly used in the social sciences such as sociology, law, anthropology, psychology among other related disciplines.
This can be understood by studying gene expression, regulatory processes, cell differentiation, and proliferation and death pathways. High-throughput profiling strategies have made it possible to study and understand the variations between normal and diseased cells gene expression and regulation.
For one, application of motivational techniques when imparting change helps reduce employee rejection to change. Secondly, it increases employee morale of help when raising the economic condition of the organization.
Over the years, the social and economic life of people has been forgotten as they adopt modern ways of life. The study of art in China and Japan ensures that the rich heritage of history is preserved. Recently people have become more interested to study the art of masks as
and understand numerous motivational methods that can be implemented during downsizing including process theories, expectancy theory, and stakeholder mapping.
Managers can use motivational theories like process theories, expectancy theory, and stakeholder mapping to direct and
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