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Assortative mating is a process where two similar or dissimilar individuals mate where as Disassortative mating involves choosing of a partner for progeny benefits from the range of the parental genotypes.
Aim of this paper is to evaluate the association of plumage polymorphism and mate choice in feral pigeons using Chi-square test. In particular, this paper analyzes the plumage colour preference as either dependent or independent in the mating process of the male and female feral pigeons. If the pigeons choose their partner in harmony with plumage colour then it is defined as dependent pairing and if they choose their partner without considering colour then it is independent pairing with respect to plumage colours. The purpose of the study is to understand feral pigeon’s plumage based mating increases the reproductive output and extend their lifespan which are also based on environmental conditions. The colour categories used for this study are melanic, blue-grey and other colours including pale/brown pigeons. “The other colours noted in feral pigeons are faded, pale, reduced, opal, indigo, milky, pearl eye and more.” (Miller 1997).
The research on feral pigeons plumage based mating is carried as described in academic handbook using Chi-square test of independence. Chi-square test of independence tests the association between two definite variables. Colour of males’ plumage and colours of females’ plumage are the variables used in this test.
The result (χ2) is then looked up on a Chi-square (χ2) table with a number of degrees of freedom (df). “We determine df for the Test of Independence by the formula df = (r-1)(c-1), where r = the number of rows and c = the number of columns.” (Yount 2006, p.6). “Chi-squared distribution table.” (The chi-squared distribution table, n.d.).
‘Expected Value’ Calculation: Using the ratios (relative frequencies) of three colour morphs in observed population, the expected values
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Brief analysis of such literature has indicated that majority of sociologists have agreed on the term, “Man is a social animal” that indicates the notion of human learning that is not possible in isolation.Thus, studies have indicated that in humans, senses come along with birth;
Surprisingly this is one area sociologists use as an introductory course for the students of sociology who fail to understand the social structures and there implications in real life (Bereczkei et al 2002). Great stress is laid on the significance of parental approval and disapproval on the mate selection process and its consequence on men and women's continued relationship. It has been found that parents have a strong role to play in the mate selection process in many cultures.
After which they decide whether they could form a bond or not (Michael Mathews, 2006).Attraction and mate selection depends on many factors; cultural, social and psychological factors.
Cultural factors highlight the issue of endogamy and exogamy. "Endogamy refers to the social requirement that marital relationships are formed within a specific group like those in caste system in India, while exogamy encourages their members to marry outside the group, sometimes specifying the groups they can marry like kinship marriages".(Meg Wikes, Janet R.
Feral children, usually, are found from thick forests where beasts have brought them up and they look imitating the animal which has nurtured them for years. Anthropologists have experienced many stories related to feral children, who captured their attention and
Then when a person is afraid of places that are closed, the fear is called claustrophobia.
According to studies people who are anxious in each and every day social places and situations have social phobia (Olson & Hergenhahn 2008).
Communication is a very important part of a relationship. Poor communication skills are reasons why couples have conflict. (Greenberg, et. al., 2011, p. 82) Communication does not only involve saying words but listening to the partner’s words as well.
Wells Fargo charges $12 monthly as service fees besides the fee on deposits.
These charges have been in existence but they are not known by many. They may seem little to many hence bank account holders ignore them. Banks also make
In addition, these female figures have stuffed fabric appendages and balloons as well as trailing hoses with their feet or hands immersed in water-filled membranes. The Livia 2 also contains these representations and Tschäpe is in the photo at a site that seems