Because the researchers did not assign women to live near the site of industrial explosion, they simply observed (identified) women who lived near the site of industrial explosion and were under age 40 at that time.
b) It was retrospective…
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of industrial explosion and were under age 40 at the time of accident had heightened concentrations of dioxin in their blood and that each tenfold increase in dioxin level was associated with a doubling of the risk of breast cancer.
a) In any experiments, it is required to select sample randomly. If the subjects were not assigned to the diets randomly instead of letting people pick what they wanted to eat, than there may be possibility of adding another factor (in this case subject’s choice) introduced to the experiments. Thus, it will be difficult to say which factor influenced blood pressure more effectively, subject’s choice what they wanted to eat or diet type.
Randomization allows us to equalize the effects of unknown or uncontrollable sources of variation. It does not eliminate the effects of these sources, but it spreads them out across the treatment levels so that we can see past them.
c) The researchers need the control group because than they will be able to compare the blood pressure of groups based on different diet only. If the DASH diet group’s mean blood pressure was lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning that would only mean that DASH diet lowered the blood pressure. This will not mean how much effective DASH diet is compared to other diets. Further, in an experiment it is required to control sources of variation other than the factors we are testing by making conditions as similar as possible for all treatment groups.
d) We would need additional information standard error of difference (or sample standard deviations and sizes for DASH diet group and control group) in order to decide whether an average reduction in blood pressure of 6.7 points was statistically
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If an initial drop is 150 feet, than I would expect duration of the rides about 2 minutes and 7 seconds. Therefore, advertise that a 2-minute ride with a 150-foot initial drop is short by about 7 seconds. This is called
The study chosen was the Williams et. al. (1998) study wherein the researchers attempted to evaluate the extent to which patient literacy was related to their knowledge of asthma and effective use of the
In deed, my grasp of the content taught fascinated me.
Overall, the course was very interesting. I found it motivating using the statistics disc to analyze data. My favorites were the MSL assignments, hypothesis testing, descriptive
lawed findings resulted to unscheduled drop in patients every day and corresponding occurrence of no-shows thus compromising the prevailing list that were mainly based on the patients scheduled on the past days.
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The effect of income is not clear, given that higher income does not guarantee higher life expectancy and vice versa.
In a nutshell, income slightly influences life expectancy, but might not be as a good predictor due to the
The mode, for example, is suitable for describing data on a nominal scale while for ordinal data; either the mode or the median should be used. The mean is however more suitable for variables on a ratio or interval scale (Hanna and
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